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Water Supply And Sanitation In England And Wales
Public WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION IN ENGLAND AND WALES has been characterised by universal access and generally good service quality. Salient features of the sector in the United Kingdom compared to other developed countries is the full privatisation of service provision and the pioneering of independent economic regulation in the sector in Europe. There has been a substantial increase in real tariffs between 1989 and 2005, whilst independent assessments place the cost of water provision in the UK as higher than most other major countries in the EU. The government body responsible for water regulation, together with the water companies, have claimed improvements in service quality during the same period
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Water Supply And Sanitation In Belgium
WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION IN BELGIUM is provided by a large variety of organizations: Most of the 589 municipalities of Belgium
Belgium
have delegated the responsibility for water supply and sanitation to regional or inter-municipal utilities. There are more than 62 water supply utilities, including 2 regional, 30 inter-municipal and 30 municipal utilities. Another 100 mostly small municipalities provide services directly without having a legally of financially separate entity for water supply. Water is not scarce in Belgium
Belgium
and water supply is generally continuous and of good quality. However, wastewater treatment has long lagged behind and Brussels
Brussels
only achieved full treatment of its wastewater in 2007. In 2004 the European Court of Justice ruled condemning Belgium's failure to comply with the EU wastewater directive, and the ruling has not been fully complied with so far
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Water Supply And Sanitation In Denmark
Public WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION IN DENMARK is characterized by universal access and generally good service quality
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Water Supply And Sanitation In France
DATA ACCESS TO PIPED WATER SUPPLY 99.5% (2003) SANITATION COVERAGE (NARROW DEFINITION) 82% (2004) CONTINUITY OF SUPPLY (%) 100% AVERAGE URBAN WATER USE (LITER/CAPITA/DAY) 165 (2004) or 262 (2003) AVERAGE URBAN DOMESTIC WATER AND SEWER BILL Euro 31/month SHARE OF HOUSEHOLD METERING high NON-REVENUE WATER 19% SHARE OF COLLECTED WASTEWATER TREATED not available ANNUAL INVESTMENT IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION 86 Euro/capita SHARE OF SELF-FINANCING BY UTILITIES close to 100% SHARE OF TAX-FINANCING Low, in rural areas SHARE OF EXTERNAL FINANCING 0% INSTITUTIONS DECENTRALIZATION TO MUNICIPALITIES Yes NATIONAL WATER AND SANITATION COMPANY None WATER AND SANITATION REGULATOR No RESPONSIBILITY FOR POLICY SETTING SECTOR LAW None NUMBER OF SERVICE PROVIDERS about 13,500 (water) and about 15,000 (sanitation) WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION IN FRANCE is universal and of good quality
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Water Supply And Sanitation In Georgia (country)
WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION in Georgia is characterized by achievements and challenges. Among the achievements is the improvement of water services in the capital Tbilisi
Tbilisi
where water supply is now continuous and of good quality, major improvements in the country's second-largest city Batumi
Batumi
on the Black Sea
Black Sea
where the country's first modern wastewater treatment plant now is under operation, as well as a general increase in access to drinking water in the entire country. Water and sewer tariffs remain affordable, with the private water company Georgian Water and Power (GWP) serving the capital being financially viable and profitable, while the public water company serving most of the rest of the country remains financially weak
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The Independent
THE INDEPENDENT is a British online newspaper . Established in 1986 as an independent national morning newspaper published in London
London
, it was controlled by Tony O\'Reilly 's Independent News "> created openings for more competition. As a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was effectively having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", and challenging both The Guardian
The Guardian
for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent
The Independent
reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989
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Wayback Machine
The WAYBACK MACHINE is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
, a nonprofit organization , based in San Francisco
San Francisco
, California
California
, United States . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Technical details * 2.1 Storage capabilities * 2.2 Growth * 2.3 Website exclusion policy * 2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy * 3 Uses * 3.1 In legal evidence * 3.1.1 Civil litigation * 3.1.1.1 Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. * 3.1.1.2 Telewizja Polska
Telewizja Polska
* 3.1.2 Patent law * 3.1.3 Limitations of utility * 4 Legal status * 5 Archived content legal issues * 5.1 Scientology
Scientology
* 5.2 Healthcare Advocates, Inc
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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
(which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller named islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight
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BBC
The BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster . Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
in London
London
and it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total, 16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time, flexible, and fixed-contract staff are included. The BBC
BBC
is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee which is charged to all British households, companies, and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up
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Public Services International
PUBLIC SERVICES INTERNATIONAL (PSI) is a global union federation of 669 public services trade unions representing 20 million workers in 154 countries. PSI represents workers in social services, health care , municipal services , central government and public utilities . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Politics * 3 Public Services International Research Unit * 4 See also * 5 References HISTORYIn March 1907, the executive of the German “Verband der Gemeinde- und Staatsarbeiter” (Federation of Municipal and State Workers), based in Berlin , issued a call to “workers employed in municipal and state undertakings, in power stations, in gas and water works, in all countries” to attend an international conference in August, 1907, in Stuttgart . Four Danes, two Dutchmen, eight Germans, a Hungarian, a Swede and a Swiss met in the Stuttgart trade union building for the First Congress of Public Services International
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Water Framework Directive
The WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (DIRECTIVE 2000/60/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL OF 23 OCTOBER 2000 ESTABLISHING A FRAMEWORK FOR COMMUNITY ACTION IN THE FIELD OF WATER POLICY) is a European Union directive
European Union directive
which commits European Union
European Union
member states to achieve good qualitative and quantitative status of all water bodies (including marine waters up to one nautical mile from shore) by 2015. It is a framework in the sense that it prescribes steps to reach the common goal rather than adopting the more traditional limit value approach. The Directive's aim for 'good status' for all water bodies will not be achieved, with 47% of EU water bodies covered by the Directive failing to achieve the aim
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Water Supply And Sanitation In Germany
PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION IN GERMANY is universal and of good quality. Some salient features of the sector compared to other developed countries are its very low per capita water use, the high share of advanced wastewater treatment and very low distribution losses. Responsibility for water supply and sanitation provision lies with municipalities, which are regulated by the states. Professional associations and utility associations play an important role in the sector. As in other EU countries, most of the standards applicable to the sector are set in Brussels (see EU water policy ). Recent developments include a trend to create commercial public utilities under private law and an effort to modernize the sector, including through more systematic benchmarking
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Water Supply And Sanitation In Greece
WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION IN GREECE is characterised by diversity. While Athens
Athens
receives its water from a series of reservoirs , some of which are located 200 km away, some small islands are supplied with water from tankers . Greeks have suffered from repeated droughts , the most recent one occurring in 2007. The EU supported the construction of numerous wastewater treatment plants since the 1990s in order to achieve EU environmental standards. While the wastewater discharge of the biggest cities is now in compliance with these standards, some smaller towns still lag behind. In Athens
Athens
and Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
, two semi-private utilities – EYDAP and EYATH – are in charge of water supply and sanitation
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Water Supply And Sanitation In Turkey
This article was last updated comprehensively in January 2011. WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION in Turkey is characterized by achievements and challenges. Over the past decades access to drinking water has become almost universal and access to adequate sanitation has also increased substantially. Autonomous utilities have been created in the 16 metropolitan cities of Turkey and cost recovery has been increased, thus providing the basis for the sustainability of service provision. Intermittent supply, which was common in many cities, has become less frequent. In 2004, 61% of the wastewater collected through sewers was being treated
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Water Supply And Sanitation In Gibraltar
WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION IN GIBRALTAR have been major concerns for its inhabitants throughout its history, from medieval times to the present day. The climate of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
is a mild Mediterranean one with warm dry summers and cool wet winters. Since daily records of rainfall began in 1790, annual rainfall has averaged a mean of 838 millimetres (33.0 in) with the highest volumes in December and the lowest in July. However, most of Gibraltar's small land area is occupied by the Rock of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
, a limestone outcrop that is riddled with caves and crevices . There are no rivers , streams, or large bodies of water on the peninsula, which is connected to Spain via a narrow sandy isthmus . Gibraltar's water supply was formerly provided by a combination of an aqueduct, wells, and the use of cisterns, barrels and earthenware pots to capture rainwater
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Water Supply And Sanitation In The European Union
WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION (WSS) IN THE EUROPEAN UNION (EU) is the responsibility of each member state, but in the 21st century union-wide policies have come into effect. Water resources are limited and supply and sanitation systems are under pressure from urbanisation and climate change . The water policy of the EU is primarily codified in three directives : * The Bathing Waters Directive (76/160/EEC) of 1976 replaced by the Directive 2006/7/EC * The Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC) of 21 May 1991 concerning discharges of municipal and some industrial waste waters ; * The Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) of 3 November 1998 concerning potable water quality ; * The Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) of 23 October 2000 concerning water resources management.EU member states have enacted national legislation in accordance with these directives
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