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Watchtower
A watchtower, is a type of fortification used in many parts of the world. It differs from a regular tower in that its primary use is military, and from a turret in that it is usually a freestanding structure. Its main purpose is to provide a high, safe place from which a sentinel or guard may observe the surrounding area
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Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance (US Army FM 7-92; Chap. 4)
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and enemy presence. Examples of reconnaissance include patrolling by troops (skirmishers, Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol, U.S. Army Rangers, cavalry scouts, or military intelligence specialists), ships or submarines, manned/unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, satellites, or by setting up covert observation posts
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Knights Hospitaller
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Latin: Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order that became the modern Sovereign Military Order of Malta, which remains a sovereign subject of international law, as well as the Protestant members of the Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem
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Emirate Of Sicily
The Emirate of Sicily (Arabic: إِمَارَةُ صِقِلِّيَة‎) was an emirate on the island of Sicily which existed from 831 to 1091. Its capital was Palermo. Muslim Arabs, who first invaded in 652, seized control of the entire island from the Byzantine Empire in a prolonged series of conflicts from 827 to 902. An Arab-Byzantine culture developed, producing a multiconfessional and multilingual state. The Emirate was conquered by Christian Norman mercenaries under Roger I of Sicily, who founded the County of Sicily in 1071. The last Muslim city in the island, Noto, was conquered in 1091. Sicilian Muslims remained citizens of the multi-ethnic County and subsequent Kingdom of Sicily, until those who had not already converted were expelled in the 1240s
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Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقيةIfrīqya) or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.. The southern boundary of Ifriqiya was far more unchallenged as bounded by the semi-arid areas and the salt marshes called el-Djerid. The northern and western boundaries fluctuated; at times as far north as Sicily otherwise just along the coastline, and the western boundary usually went as far as Béjaïa
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Balearic Islands
The Balearic Islands (/ˌbæliˈærɪk/; Catalan: Illes Balears, pronounced [ˈiʎəz bələˈas]; Spanish: Islas Baleares, pronounced [ˈizlaz βaleˈaɾes]) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. The four largest islands are Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera. There are many minor islands and islets close to the larger islands, including Cabrera, Dragonera and S'Espalmador. The islands have a Mediterranean climate, and the four major islands are all popular tourist destinations
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Saracen
Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages. The term's meaning evolved during its history. In the early centuries of the Common Era, Greek and Latin writings used this term to refer to the people who lived in desert areas in and near the Roman province of Arabia Petraea, and who were specifically distinguished from others as a people known as Arabs. In Europe during the Early Middle Ages, the term came to be associated with tribes of Arabia as well. By the 12th century, "Saracen" had become synonymous with "Muslim" in Medieval Latin literature
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Italy
Italy (Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana [reˈpubblika itaˈljaːna]), is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and surrounded by several islands. Italy is located in south-central Europe, and it is also considered a part of western Europe. The country covers a total area of 301,340 km2---> (116,350 sq mi) and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea (Lampedusa)
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Grand Master (order)
Grand Master (Latin: Magister generalis; German: Hochmeister) is a title of the supreme head of various orders, including chivalric orders such as military orders and dynastic orders of knighthood. The title also occurs in modern civil fraternal orders such as the Freemasons, the Odd Fellows, and various other fraternities
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Guernsey Loophole Towers
The British built 15 Guernsey loophole towers at various points along the coast of Guernsey between August 1778 and March 1779 to deter possible French attacks after France had declared itself an ally of the American rebels in the American Revolutionary War. Towards the start of the Napoleonic Wars several towers received additional reinforcement in the form of batteries at their bases. Today, 12 towers still survive, three having been destroyed at different times
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British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2---> (13,700,000 sq mi), 24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic, and cultural legacy is widespread
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Fort Denison
Fort Denison, part of Sydney Harbour National Park, is a protected national park that is a former penal site and defensive facility occupying a small island located north-east of the Royal Botanic Gardens and approximately 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) east of the Opera House in Sydney Harbour, New South Wales, Australia
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Najd
Najd or Nejd (Arabic: نجد‎, Najd, Arabic pronunciation: [nad͡ʒd]) is a geographical central region of Saudi Arabia, alone accounting for almost a third of the population of the country. Najd consists of modern administrative regions of Riyadh, Al-Qassim, and Ha'il
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Asir
The 'Asir Region (or 'Aseer, Arabic: عسيرʿAsīr) is a region of Saudi Arabia located in the southwest of the country that is named after the ʿAsīr tribe. It has an area of 76,693 square kilometres (29,611 sq mi) and an estimated population of 1,913,392. It shares a short border with Yemen. The capital of the Asir Region is Abha. Other towns include Khamis Mushait, Bisha and Bareq. The regional governor is Faisal bin Khalid bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (appointed 16 May 2007), a son of King Khalid of Saudi Arabia
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Sydney
Sydney (/ˈsɪdni/ (About this sound listen)) is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds the world's largest natural harbour and sprawls about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north and Macarthur to the south. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2016 Sydney's estimated population was 5,029,768. The Sydney area has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years. Lieutenant James Cook first landed at Kurnell in 1770, when navigating his way up the east coast of Australia on his ship, HMS Endeavour
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