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Wasted Vote
In electoral systems, a wasted vote is any vote which is not for an elected candidate or, more broadly, a vote that does not help to elect a candidate. The narrower meaning includes only those votes which are for a losing candidate or party
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Electoral System
An electoral system is a set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are organized by governments, while non-political elections may take place in business, non-profit organisations and informal organisations. Electoral systems consist of sets of rules that govern all aspects of the voting process: when elections occur, who is allowed to vote, who can stand as a candidate, how ballots are marked and cast, how the ballots are counted (electoral method), limits on campaign spending, and other factors that can affect the outcome
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Vote
Voting
Voting
is a method for a group, such as, a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion, usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracies elect holders of high office by voting. Residents of a place represented by an elected official are called "constituents", and those constituents who cast a ballot for their chosen candidate are called "voters"
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Vox (website)
Vox is an American news and opinion website owned by Vox Media. The website was founded in 2014 by Melissa Bell and Ezra Klein
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Social Science Research Network
The Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is a website devoted to the rapid dissemination of scholarly research in the social sciences and humanities. In January 2013, SSRN was ranked the top open-access repository in the world by Ranking Web of Repositories (an initiative of the Cybermetrics Lab, a research group belonging to the Spanish National Research Council).[1] In May 2016, SSRN was bought from Social Science Electronic Publishing Inc. by Elsevier.[2]Contents1 History 2 Operations 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] SSRN was founded in 1994 by Michael Jensen and Wayne Marr, both financial economists. In May 2016, SSRN was bought from Social Science Electronic Publishing Inc
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Acton Institute
The Acton Institute
Acton Institute
for the Study of Religion and Liberty is an American research and educational institution,[2] or think tank, in Grand Rapids, Michigan
Grand Rapids, Michigan
(with an
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Spoilt Vote
In voting, a ballot is considered spoilt, spoiled, void, null, informal, invalid, or stray if a law declares or an election authority determines that it is invalid and thus not included in the vote count. This may occur accidentally or deliberately
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University Of Chicago
The University
University
of Chicago
Chicago
(UChi, U of C, Chicago, or UChicago) is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. It holds top-ten positions in various national and international rankings.[9][10][11][12] The university is composed of the College, various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into five academic research divisions and seven professional schools. Beyond the arts and sciences, Chicago
Chicago
is also well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, the Divinity School and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies
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Electoral College (United States)
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia. The Constitution specifies that each state legislature individually determines its own process for appointing electors.[1][2] In practice, all state legislatures use popular voting to choose a slate of electors who are pledged to vote for a particular party's candidate
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D'Hondt Method
The D'Hondt method[a] or the Jefferson method is a highest averages method for allocating seats, and is thus a type of party-list proportional representation. The method described is named in United States after Thomas Jefferson, who introduced the method for proportional allocation of seats in the United States
United States
House of Representatives in 1791, and in Europe after Belgian mathematician Victor D'Hondt, who described it in 1878 for proportional allocation of parliamentary seats to the parties. There are two forms: closed list (a party selects the order of election of their candidates) and an open list (voters' choices determine the order). Proportional representation
Proportional representation
systems aim to allocate seats to parties approximately in proportion to the number of votes received. For example, if a party wins one-third of the votes then it should gain about one-third of the seats
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Duverger's Law
In political science, Duverger's law holds that plurality-rule elections (such as first past the post) structured within single-member districts tend to favor a two-party system, whereas "the double ballot majority system and proportional representation tend to favor multipartism".[1][2] The discovery of this tendency is attributed to Maurice Duverger, a French sociologist who observed the effect and recorded it in several papers published in the 1950s and 1960s. In the course of further research, other political scientists began calling the effect a "law" or principle. Duverger's law draws from a model of causality from electoral system to a party system. A proportional representation (PR) system creates electoral conditions that foster development of many parties, whereas a plurality system marginalizes smaller political parties, generally resulting in a two-party system. In practice, most countries with plurality voting have more than two parties
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Election Campaign
A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making process within a specific group. In democracies, political campaigns often refer to electoral campaigns, by which representatives are chosen or referendums are decided
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Pejorative
A pejorative (also called a derogatory term,[1] a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.[2] It is also used as criticism, hostility, disregard or disrespect. A term can be regarded as pejorative in some social or cultural groups but not in others. Sometimes, a term may begin as a pejorative and eventually be adopted in a non-pejorative sense (or vice versa) in some or all contexts. Name slurs can also involve an insulting or disparaging innuendo,[3] rather than being a direct pejorative
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Instant-runoff Voting
Instant-runoff voting
Instant-runoff voting
(IRV) is a voting method used in single-seat elections with more than two candidates. Instead of voting only for a single candidate, voters in IRV elections can rank the candidates in order of preference. Ballots are initially counted for each elector's top choice, losing candidates are eliminated, and ballots for losing candidates are redistributed until one candidate is the top remaining choice of a majority of the voters. When the field is reduced to two, it has become an "instant runoff" that allows a comparison of the top two candidates head-to-head. IRV has the effect of avoiding split votes when multiple candidates earn support from like-minded voters. As a simple example, suppose there are two candidates with similar views, A and B, and a third with different views, C; with first-preference totals of 35% for candidate A, 25% for B and 40% for C
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