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War Of The Three Kingdoms
English Parliamentary Army victory over all other protagonistsExecution of King Charles I Exile of Charles II Defeat of the Irish Confederates Defeat of the Scottish Covenanters English Parliament reduced to a Rump Establishment of the republican CommonwealthBelligerentsEnglish, Scottish and Irish Royalists Scottish Covenanters Irish Confederates Irish Protestants English ParliamentariansCommanders and leadersCharles I   Prince Rupert Charles II Marquis of Montrose (in Scotland)Marquis of Argyll David LeslieConfederate Supreme Council Owen Roe O'Neill
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Three Kingdoms (other)
The Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period (220–280) was a period in Chinese history including three major kingdoms, Wei, Shu, and Wu. Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
may also refer to:Contents1 Histo
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Kingdom Of England
Unitary parliamentary monarchy (1215–1707)Monarch •  927–939 Æthelstan
Æthelstan
(first)[a] •  1702–1707 Anne (last)[b]Legislature Parliament •  Upper house House of Lords •  Lower house House of CommonsHistory •  Unification 10th century •  Battle of Hastings 14 October 1066 •  Conquered Wales 1277–1283 •  Incorporated Wales 1535–1542 •  Union of the Crowns 24 March 1603 •  Glorious Revol
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Michael Jones (soldier)
Lieutenant-General
Lieutenant-General
Michael Jones (died December 1649) was an Irish soldier who fought for King Charles I during the Irish Confederate War but joined the English Parliamentary side when the English Civil War started. He is noted for his victories at the Battle of Dungans Hill and the Battle of Rathmines, which facilitated the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.Contents1 Biography 2 Legacy 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] The son of Lewis Jones (1560–1646), a Welshman who settled in Ireland, becoming Bishop of Killaloe, the young Jones was a student at Lincoln's Inn when the Civil War began
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Henry Ireton
Henry Ireton
Henry Ireton
(1611 – 26 November 1651) was an English general in the Parliamentary army during the English Civil War, the son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell.Contents1 Early life 2 English Civil War 3 Political views and debates over the future of the monarchy 4 Irish campaign and death 5 Posthumous execution 6 Family 7 In fiction 8 Memorials 9 Notes 10 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Ireton was the eldest son of German Ireton of Attenborough, Nottinghamshire, and was baptised in St Mary's Church on 3 November 1611
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Bishops' Wars
First English Civil WarBoldon Hill Newcastle York Marston Moor CarlisleScottish Civil WarTippermuir Aberdeen
Aberdeen
(1644) Inverlochy Auldearn Alford Kilsyth Philiphaugh Lagganmore Aberdeen
Aberdeen
(1646) Rhunahaorine Moss Dunaverty Mauchline Muir Preston Whiggamore Raid Stirling 1st Inverness 2nd Inverness CarbisdaleThird English Civil WarDunbar Inverkeithing WorcesterGlencairn's risingTullich DalnaspidalThe start—riots set off by Jenny Geddes.Archbishop Laud's 1637 Book of Common Prayer.The Bishops' Wars
Bishops' Wars
(Latin: Bellum Episcopale) were conflicts, both political and military, which occurred in 1639 and 1640 centred on the nature of the governance of the Church of Scotland, and the rights and powers of the Crown
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Irish Confederate Wars
The Irish Confederate Wars, also called the Eleven Years' War (derived from the Irish language
Irish language
name Cogadh na hAon Bhliana Déag), took place in Ireland
Ireland
between 1641 and 1653. It was the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms – a series of civil wars in the kingdoms of Ireland, England
England
and Scotland (all ruled by Charles I). The conflict in Ireland
Ireland
essentially started by pitting the native Irish Catholics against English and Scottish Protestant colonists and their supporters, and ended with Royalists, Irish Catholics and Scottish Presbyterians fighting the ultimate winners, the English Parliament. It was both a religious and an ethnic conflict – fought over who would govern Ireland, whether it would be governed from England, which ethnic and religious group would own most of the land, and which religion would predominate in the country
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English Civil War
Parliamentarian victoryExecution of King Charles I Exile of Charles II Establishment of the republican Commonwealth under Oliver CromwellBelligerentsEnglish, Scottish, Welsh and Irish Royalists English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish ParliamentariansCommanders and leadersKing Charles I   Prince Rupert
Prince Rupert
of the Rhine Charles IIEarl of Essex Thomas Fairfax Oliver CromwellCasualties and losses50,000[1] 34,000[1]127,000 noncombat deaths (including some 40,000 civilians)[a]v t eEnglish Civil WarFirst Second ThirdThe English Civil War
English Civil War
(1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's government
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First English Civil War
Parliamentarian- Covenanter
Covenanter
victoryKing Charles I held in custody[1] Subsequent power vacuum leads to the political supremacy of the New Model Army[1][2] Presbyterian-Independent tensions results in outbreak of the Second English Civil War[1]Belligerents Parliamentarians Covenanters English Royalists Scottish RoyalistsCommanders and leaders Sir Thomas Fairfax Oliver Cromwell Earl of Manchester Earl of Essex Lord Fairfax Sir William Waller Sir John Meldrum Sir William Brereton Robert Blake Earl of Leven Marquess of Argyll Sir Davi
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Second English Civil War
The Second English Civil War
English Civil War
(1648–1649) was the second of three wars known collectively as the English Civil War
English Civil War
(or Wars), which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place betwe
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Third English Civil War
The Third English Civil War
English Civil War
(1649–1651) was the last of the English Civil Wars (1642–1651), a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The Preston campaign of the Second Civil War was undertaken under the direction of the Scots Parliament, not the Kirk, and it took the execution of King Charles I to bring about a union of all Scottish parties against the English Independents. Even so, Charles II in exile had to submit to long negotiations and hard conditions before he was allowed to put himself at the head of the Scottish armies. The Marquess of Huntly was executed for taking up arms for the king on 22 March 1649.[1] The Marquess of Montrose, under the direction of Charles II, made a last attempt to rally the Scottish Royalists early in 1650. But Charles II merely used Montrose as a threat to obtain better conditions for himself from the Covenanters
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Scotland In The Wars Of The Three Kingdoms
First English Civil WarBoldon Hill Newcastle York Marston Moor CarlisleScottish Civil WarTippermuir Aberdeen (1644) Inverlochy Auldearn Alford Kilsyth Philiphaugh Lagganmore Aberdeen (1646) Rhunahaorine Moss Dunaverty Mauchline Muir Preston Whiggamore Raid Stirling 1st Inverness 2nd Inverness CarbisdaleThird English Civil WarDunbar Inverkeithing WorcesterGlencairn's risingTullich DalnaspidalBetween 1639 and 1653 Scotland
Scotland
was involved in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, a series of wars starting with the
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Cromwellian Conquest Of Ireland
Decisive English Parliamentarian victoryEnglish Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland End of the Confederation of Kilkenny Act for the Settlement of Ireland
Ireland
1652Belligerents Irish Catholic
Catholic
Confederation English Royalists English ParliamentarianNew Model Army Protestant
Protestant
colonistsCommanders and leaders James Butler, Marquess of Ormonde (Aug. 1649 – Dec. 1650) Ulick Burke, Earl of Clanricarde (Dec. 1650 – Apr. 1653) Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
(Aug. 1649 – May 1650) Henry Ireton
Henry Ireton
(May 1650 – Nov. 1651) Charles Fleetwood
Charles Fleetwood
(Nov. 1651 – Apr. 1653)StrengthUp to 60,000 incl
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Kingdom Of Ireland
The Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
(Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King of England
England
and later the King of Great Britain
Great Britain
that existed on Ireland from 1542 until 1800. While ruled by the King of England
King of England
in personal union with his other realms, it had its own legislature (Parliament of Ireland), its own nobility (Peerage of Ireland) and its own legal system and codes until it was merged into the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
in 1800. It came into being when the Parliament of Ireland
Ireland
passed the Crown of Ireland Act 1542
Crown of Ireland Act 1542
and proclaimed King Henry VIII of England
England
as King of Ireland
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Oliver Cromwell
English Civil War:Gainsborough Marston Moor Newbury II Naseby Langport Preston Dunbar WorcesterRoyal styles of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector
Lord Protector
of the CommonwealthReference style His HighnessSpoken style Your HighnessAlternative style Sir Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
(25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658)[a] was an English military and political leader. He served as Lord Protector
Lord Protector
of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 until his death, acting simultaneously as head of state and head of government of the new republic. Cromwell was born into the middle gentry, albeit to a family descended from the sister of King Henry VIII's minister Thomas Cromwell
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Kingdom Of Scotland
The Kingdom of Scotland
Scotland
(Scottish Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern third of the island of Great Britain, sharing a land border to the south with the Kingdom of England. It suffered many invasions by the English, but under Robert I it fought a successful war of independence and remained an independent state throughout the late Middle Ages. In 1603, James VI of Scotland
Scotland
became King of England, joining Scotland
Scotland
with England in a personal union
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