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War Of The Castilian Succession
Treaty of Alcáçovas:Isabella is recognised as Queen of Castile Marriage of Isabella of Aragon to Afonso of Portugal Portugal
Portugal
gains hegemony in the Atlantic south of the Canary Islands Portugal
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Order Of Succession
An order of succession is the sequence of those entitled to hold a high office such as head of state or an honour such as a title of nobility in the order in which they stand in line to it when it becomes vacated.[1] This sequence may be regulated through descent or by statute.[1] Hereditary government
Hereditary government
form differs from elected government. An established order of succession is the normal way of passing on hereditary positions, and also provides immediate continuity after an unexpected vacancy in cases where office-holders are chosen by election: the office does not have to remain vacant until a successor is elected. In some cases the successor takes up the full role of the previous office-holder, as in the case of the presidency of many countries; in other non-hereditary cases there is not a full succession, but a caretaker chosen by succession criteria assumes some or all of the responsibilities, but not the formal office, of the position
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Roussillon
Roussillon
Roussillon
(/ˈruːsɪjɒn/[1] or /ˌruːsiːˈjoʊn/; French: [ʁu.si.jɔ̃]; Catalan: Rosselló [rusəˈʎo], Occitan: Rosselhon) is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales
Pyrénées-Orientales
(Eastern Pyrenees). It may also refer to Northern Catalonia
Northern Catalonia
or French Catalonia, the first used by Catalan-speakers and the second used by French-speakers. A 1998 survey found that 34% of respondents stated they speak Catalan, and a further 21% understand it.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] Its name is derived from Ruscino (Rosceliona, Castel Rossello), a small fortified place near modern-day Perpignan
Perpignan
where Gaulish chieftains met to consider Hannibal's request for a conference
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John II Of Portugal
John II (Portuguese: João II,[1] Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈɐ̃w̃]; 3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495), the Perfect Prince (Portuguese: o Príncipe Perfeito), was the king of Portugal and the Algarves in 1477/1481–1495. He is known for re-establishing the power of the Portuguese throne, reinvigorating the Portuguese economy, and renewing his country's exploration of Africa
Africa
and the Orient.Contents1 Early life 2 Consolidation of power 3 Economy 4 Exploration 5 Conflict with Castile 6 Legacy 7 In popular culture 8 Marriage and descendants 9 Ancestry 10 See
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Louis XI Of France
Louis XI (3 July 1423 – 30 August 1483), called "Louis the Prudent" (French: le Prudent), was a monarch of the House of Valois
House of Valois
who ruled as King of France
King of France
from 1461 to 1483. He succeeded his father Charles VII. Louis entered into open rebellion against his father in a short-lived revolt known as the Praguerie in 1440. The king forgave his rebellious vassals, including Louis, to whom he entrusted the management of the Dauphiné, then a province in southeastern France. Louis's ceaseless intrigues, however, led his father to banish him from court. From the Dauphiné, Louis led his own political establishment and married Charlotte of Savoy, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy, against the will of his father
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Calais
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Calais
Calais
(UK: /ˈkæleɪ/, US: /kæˈleɪ/, traditionally /ˈkælɪs/; French: [kalɛ]; Picard: Calés; Dutch: Kales) is a town and major ferry port in northern France
France
in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Although Calais
Calais
is by far the largest city in Pas-de-Calais, the department's prefecture is its third-largest city of Arras
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Edward IV Of England
Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was the King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470,[1][2] and again from 11 April 1471 until his death. He was the first Yorkist
Yorkist
King of England.[3] The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 to reign in peace until his sudden death. Before becoming king, he was 4th Duke of York,[4] 7th Earl of March, 5th Earl of Cambridge and 9th Earl of Ulster
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Kingdom Of England
Unitary parliamentary monarchy (1215–1707)Monarch •  927–939 Æthelstan
Æthelstan
(first)[a] •  1702–1707 Anne (last)[b]Legislature Parliament •  Upper house House of Lords •  Lower house House of CommonsHistory •  Unification 10th century •  Battle of Hastings 14 October 1066 •  Conquered Wales 1277–1283 •  Incorporated Wales 1535–1542 •  Union of the Crowns 24 March 1603 •  Glorious Revol
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Henry IV Of Castile
Henry IV of Castile
Henry IV of Castile
(Castilian: Enrique IV) (5 January 1425 – 11 December 1474), King of the Crown of Castile, nicknamed the Impotent (ruled 1454–1474), was the last of the weak late medieval kings of Castile. During Henry's reign the nobles increased in power and the nation became less centralised.Contents1 Biography1.1 Prince 1.2 King 1.3 Marital politics1.3.1 Marriage to Blanche II of Navarre1.4 Civil war2 Debate over his health and sexuality 3 Appearance 4 Ancestry 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Prince[edit] He was born in 1425 at the Casa de las Aldabas (since destroyed) in Teresa Gil street of Valladolid. He was the son of John II of Castile and Maria of Aragon, daughter of King Ferdinand I of Aragon
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Duchy Of Burgundy
The Duchy of Burgundy
Burgundy
(Latin: Ducatus Burgundiae; French: Duché de Bourgogne, Dutch: Hertogdom Bourgondië) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire. Upon the 9th century partitions, the French remnants of the Burgundian kingdom were demoted to a ducal rank by King Robert II of France
France
in 1004 and in 1032 awarded to his younger son Robert via Salic law – other portions had passed to the Imperial Kingdom of Arles and the County of Burgundy
County of Burgundy
(Franche-Comté). Robert became the ancestor of the ducal House of Burgundy, a cadet branch of the royal Capetian dynasty, ruling over a territory which roughly conformed to the borders and territories of the modern region of Burgundy
Burgundy
(Bourgogne)
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Treaty Of Picquigny
The Treaty of Picquigny
Picquigny
was a peace treaty negotiated on 29 August 1475 between the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
and the Kingdom of France. It followed from an invasion of France by Edward IV of England
Edward IV of England
in alliance with Burgundy and Brittany. It left Louis XI of France
Louis XI of France
free to deal with the threat posed by Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy.Contents1 Background 2 Treaty 3 Commines report 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] Edward IV had invaded France in alliance with Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, landing with a force of around 16,000 troops in June. The plan was to march through Burgundian territory to Reims
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Kingdom Of France
La Parisienne (1830–1848) "The Parisian"The Kingdom of France
France
in 1789.Capital Paris
Paris
(987–1682) Versailles (1682–1789)
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Peninsular War
French Empire Bonapartist Spain Confederation of the Rhine Napoleonic Italy Duchy of WarsawCommanders and leaders Arthur Wellesley William Beresford Rowland Hill John Moore † Francisco Castaños Juan Martín Díez José Palafox Gregorio de la Cuesta Miguel Álava Esquivel Joaquín Blake Bernardino Freire † Francisco da Silveira Napoleon
Napoleon
I Joseph I Joachim Murat Jean-Andoche Junot Jean de Dieu Soult André Masséna Michel Ney Louis Gabriel Suchet Jean Lannes Joseph Mortier Auguste de Marmont Jean-Baptiste Bessières Jean-Baptiste Jourd
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Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
(1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon
Napoleon
I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution
French Revolution
and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon; the Third Coalition
Third Coalition
(1805), the Fourth (1806–07), Fifth (1809), Sixth (1813), and the Seventh and final (1815). Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France
France
in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic; he subsequently created a state with stable finances, a strong bureaucracy, and a well-trained army
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Asturias
Asturias
Asturias
(/æˈstʊəriəs, ə-/;[1][2] Spanish: [asˈtuɾjas]; Asturian: Asturies [asˈtuɾjes]; Galician: Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias
Asturias
(Spanish: Principado de Asturias; Asturian: Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain. It is coextensive with the province of Asturias, and contains some of the territory that was part of the larger Kingdom of Asturias in the Middle Ages
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House Of Mendoza
The Mendoza family was a powerful line of Spanish nobles. Members of the family wielded considerable power, especially from the 14th to the 17th centuries in Castile. The family originated from the town of Mendoza in the province of Álava
Álava
in the Basque countries, with the seigneury becoming part of the Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
during the reign of Alfonso XI
Alfonso XI
(1312–1350). The Mendozas participated in Castilian politics afterward, with its scions becoming advisers, administrators, and clerics. Its different branches and name expanded out of its original nucleus in later centuries
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