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Wahbi Al Bouri
The Bouri Formation is a sequence of sedimentary deposits that is the source of australopithecine and Homo
Homo
(that is, hominin) fossils, artifacts, and bones of large mammals with cut marks from butchery with tools by early hominins. It is located in the Middle Awash Valley, in Ethiopia, East Africa, and is a part of the Afar Depression that has provided rich human fossil sites such as Gona and Hadar. The Bouri Formation stretches down much of the length and breadth of the Bouri "peninsula", which projects across the dry bed of the Afar Depression. The Formation is sufficiently eroded to expose three geological members or layers: the Hatayae, the Dakanihylo, and the Herto
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Ethiopia
Coordinates: 8°N 38°E / 8°N 38°E / 8; 38Federal Democratic Republic
Republic
of Ethiopia የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī RīpebilīkFlagEmblemAnthem:  ወደፊት ገስግሺ፣ ውድ እናት ኢትዮጵያ March Forward, Dear Mother EthiopiaCapital and largest city Addis Ababa 9°1′N 38°45′E / 9.017°N 38.750°E / 9.017; 38.750Official languages
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Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen's reaction series. Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white, and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs
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Erosion
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it away to another location[1] (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement). This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, water, ice (glaciers), snow, air (wind), plants, animals, and humans. In accordance with these agents, erosion is sometimes divided into water erosion, glacial erosion, snow erosion, wind (aeolic) erosion, zoogenic erosion, and anthropogenic erosion[2].The particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion; this contrasts with chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by its dissolving into a solvent (typically water), followed by the flow away of that solution
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Paleoanthropology
Paleoanthropology
Paleoanthropology
or paleo-anthropology is a branch of archaeology with a human focus, which seeks to understand the early development of anatomically modern humans, a process known as hominization, through the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines within the family Hominidae, working from biological evidence (such as petrified skeletal remains, bone fragments, footprints) and cultural evidence (such as stone tools, artifacts, and settlement localities).[1][2] The field draws from and combines paleontology, biological anthropology, and cultural anthropology
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Tuff
Tuff
Tuff
(from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption. Following ejection and deposition, the ash is compacted into a solid rock in a process called consolidation. Tuff
Tuff
is sometimes erroneously called "tufa", particularly when used as construction material, but properly speaking tufa is a limestone precipitated from groundwater. Rock that contains greater than 50% tuff is considered tuffaceous. Tuff
Tuff
is a relatively soft rock, so it has been used for construction since ancient times. Since it is common in Italy
Italy
the Romans used it often for construction. The Rapa Nui
Rapa Nui
people used it to make most of the moai statues in Easter Island. Tuff
Tuff
can be classified as either sedimentary or igneous rocks
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Argon–argon Dating
Argon–argon (or 40Ar/39Ar) dating is a radiometric dating method invented to supersede potassium-argon (K/Ar) dating in accuracy. The older method required splitting samples into two for separate potassium and argon measurements, while the newer method requires only one rock fragment or mineral grain and uses a single measurement of argon isotopes. 40Ar/39Ar dating relies on neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor to convert a stable form of potassium (39K) into the radioactive 39Ar. As long as a standard of known age is co-irradiated with unknown samples, it is possible to use a single measurement of argon isotopes to calculate the 40K/40Ar* ratio, and thus to calculate the age of the unknown sample. 40Ar* refers to the radiogenic 40Ar, i.e. the 40Ar produced from radioactive decay of 40K
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Silt
Silt
Silt
is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz[1] and feldspar. Silt
Silt
may occur as a soil (often mixed with sand or clay) or as sediment mixed in suspension with water (also known as a suspended load) and soil in a body of water such as a river. It may also exist as soil deposited at the bottom of a water body, like mudflows from landslides. Silt
Silt
has a moderate specific area with a typically non-sticky, plastic feel. Silt usually has a floury feel when dry, and a slippery feel when wet. Silt can be visually observed with a hand lens, exhibiting a sparkly appearance
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Paleosol
In the geosciences, paleosol (palaeosol in Great Britain
Great Britain
and Australia) can have two meanings. The first meaning, common in geology and paleontology, refers to a former soil preserved by burial underneath either sediments (alluvium or loess) or volcanic deposits (volcanic ash), which in the case of older deposits have lithified into rock. In Quaternary
Quaternary
geology, sedimentology, paleoclimatology, and geology in general, it is the typical and accepted practice to use the term "paleosol" to designate such "fossil soils" found buried within either sedimentary or volcanic deposits exposed in all continents as illustrated by Rettallack (2001),[1] Kraus (1999),[2] and other published papers and books. In soil science, paleosols are soils formed long periods ago that have no relationship in their chemical and physical characteristics to the present-day climate or vegetation
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Zeolitic
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.[1] The term zeolite was originally coined in 1756 by Swedish mineralogist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who observed that rapidly heating the material, believed to have been stilbite, produced large amounts of steam from water that had been adsorbed by the material. Based on this, he called the material zeolite, from the Greek [ζέω (zéō)] error: lang : text has italic markup (help), meaning "to boil" and [λίθος (líthos)] error: lang : text has italic markup (help), meaning "stone".[2] The classic reference for the field has been Breck's book Zeolite Molecular Sieves: Structure, Chemistry, And Use.[3] Zeolites occur naturally but are also produced industrially on a large scale
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Bentonitic
Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. It was named by Wilbur C. Knight in 1898 after the Cretaceous Benton Shale near Rock River, Wyoming.[1][2] The different types of bentonite are each named after the respective dominant element, such as potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and aluminium (Al). Experts debate a number of nomenclatorial problems with the classification of bentonite clays. Bentonite usually forms from weathering of volcanic ash, most often in the presence of water. However, the term bentonite, as well as a similar clay called tonstein, has been used to describe clay beds of uncertain origin. For industrial purposes, two main classes of bentonite exist: sodium and calcium bentonite
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Carbonate Rock
Carbonate rocks are a class of sedimentary rocks composed primarily of carbonate minerals. The two major types are limestone, which is composed of calcite or aragonite (different crystal forms of CaCO3) and dolostone, which is composed of the mineral dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). Calcite
Calcite
can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite
Calcite
exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. Karst topography
Karst topography
and caves develop in carbonate rocks because of their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater
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Pedogenesis
Pedogenesis
Pedogenesis
(from the Greek pedo-, or pedon, meaning 'soil, earth,' and genesis, meaning 'origin, birth') (also termed soil development, soil evolution, soil formation, and soil genesis) is the process of soil formation as regulated by the effects of place, environment, and history. Biogeochemical
Biogeochemical
processes act to both create and destroy order (anisotropy) within soils. These alterations lead to the development of layers, termed soil horizons, distinguished by differences in color, structure, texture, and chemistry. These features occur in patterns of soil type distribution, forming in response to differences in soil forming factors.[1] Pedogenesis
Pedogenesis
is studied as a branch of pedology, the study of soil in its natural environment. Other branches of pedology are the study of soil morphology, and soil classification
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Bivalve
See textEmpty shell of the giant clam (Tridacna gigas)Empty shells of the sword razor ( Ensis
Ensis
ensis)Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts. Bivalves as a group have no head and they lack some usual molluscan organs like the radula and the odontophore. They include the clams, oysters, cockles, mussels, scallops, and numerous other families that live in saltwater, as well as a number of families that live in freshwater. The majority are filter feeders. The gills have evolved into ctenidia, specialised organs for feeding and breathing. Most bivalves bury themselves in sediment where they are relatively safe from predation. Others lie on the sea floor or attach themselves to rocks or other hard surfaces. Some bivalves, such as the scallops and file shells, can swim
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Plio-Pleistocene
The term Plio- Pleistocene
Pleistocene
refers to an informally described geological pseudo-period, which begins about 5 million years ago (mya) and, drawing forward, combines the time ranges of the formally defined Pliocene
Pliocene
and Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epochs—marking from about 5 mya to about 12 kya. Nominally, the Holocene
Holocene
epoch—the last 12 thousand years—would be excluded, but most Earth scientists would probably treat the current times as incorporated into the term "Plio-Pleistocene" ;[1] see below. In the contexts of archaeology, paleontology, and paleoanthropology, the Plio- Pleistocene
Pleistocene
is a very useful period to which scientists may assign the long and continuous run in East Africa
East Africa
of datable sedimentary layers and their contents; (for one example, see the Bouri Formation)
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Gastropod
See text.Diversity65,000 to 80,000 species[3][4]The Gastropoda
Gastropoda
or gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, are a large taxonomic class within the phylum Mollusca. The class Gastropoda
Gastropoda
includes snails and slugs of all kinds and all sizes from microscopic to Achatina achatina, the largest known land gastropod. There are many thousands of species of sea snails and sea slugs, as well as freshwater snails, freshwater limpets, land snails and land slugs. The class Gastropoda
Gastropoda
contains a vast total of named species, second only to the insects in overall number. The fossil history of this class goes back to the Late Cambrian
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