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WHOIS
WHOIS
WHOIS
(pronounced as the phrase who is) is a query and response protocol that is widely used for querying databases that store the registered users or assignees of an Internet
Internet
resource, such as a domain name, an IP address
IP address
block, or an autonomous system, but is also used for a wider range of other information
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RIPE
Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE, French for "European IP Networks") is a forum open to all parties with an interest in the technical development of the Internet. The RIPE
RIPE
community’s objective is to ensure that the administrative and technical coordination necessary to maintain and develop the Internet
Internet
continues. It is not a standards body like the Internet
Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) and does not deal with domain names like ICANN. RIPE
RIPE
is not a legal entity and has no formal membership. This means that anybody who is interested in the work of RIPE
RIPE
can participate through mailing lists and by attending meetings. RIPE
RIPE
has a chair to keep an eye on work between RIPE
RIPE
meetings and to act as its external liaison
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REST
REpresentational State Transfer (REST) is an architectural style that defines a set of constraints and properties based on HTTP. Web Services that conform to the REST architectural style, or RESTful web services, provide interoperability between computer systems on the Internet. REST-compliant web services allow the requesting systems to access and manipulate textual representations of web resources by using a uniform and predefined set of stateless operations. Other kinds of web services, such as SOAP
SOAP
web services, expose their own arbitrary sets of operations.[1] "Web resources" were first defined on the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
as documents or files identified by their URLs. However, today they have a much more generic and abstract definition that encompasses every thing or entity that can be identified, named, addressed, or handled, in any way whatsoever, on the web
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Unix-like
A Unix-like
Unix-like
(sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix
Unix
system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX
UNIX
Specification. A Unix-like
Unix-like
application is one that behaves like the corresponding Unix
Unix
command or shell
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Number Resource Organization
A regional Internet registry (RIR) is an organization that manages the allocation and registration of Internet number resources within a particular region of the world
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Unix
Unix
Unix
(/ˈjuːnɪks/; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.[3] Initially intended for use inside the Bell System, AT&T licensed Unix
Unix
to outside parties in the late 1970s, leading to a variety of both academic and commercial Unix
Unix
variants from vendors like the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
(BSD), Microsoft
Microsoft
(Xenix), IBM (AIX), and Sun Microsystems
Sun Microsystems
(Solaris)
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IRC
Internet Relay Chat
Internet Relay Chat
(IRC) is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text. The chat process works on a client/server networking model. IRC
IRC
clients are computer programs that a user can install on their system or web based applications running either locally in the browser or on 3rd party server
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RIPE NCC
The Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre
Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre
( RIPE
RIPE
NCC) is the Regional Internet Registry
Regional Internet Registry
(RIR) for Europe, the Middle East, and the former USSR. It is headquartered in Amsterdam.[1] A RIR oversees the allocation and registration of Internet number resources ( IPv4
IPv4
addresses, IPv6
IPv6
addresses and autonomous system numbers) in a specific region. The RIPE
RIPE
NCC supports the technical and administrative coordination of the infrastructure of the Internet
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Finger Protocol
In computer networking, the Name/Finger protocol and the Finger user information protocol are simple network protocols for the exchange of human-oriented status and user information.Contents1 Name/Finger protocol 2 Finger user information protocol 3 Security concerns 4 Application support 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksName/Finger protocol[edit] The Name/Finger protocol, is based on Request for Comments document RFC 742 (December 1977) as an interface to the name and finger programs that provide status reports on a particular computer system or a particular person at network sites. The finger program was written in 1971 by Les Earnest who created the program to solve the need of users who wanted information on other users of the network. Information on who is logged-in was useful to check the availability of a person to meet
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Open-source Software
Open-source
Open-source
software (OSS) is a type of computer software with its source code made available with a license in which the copyright holder provides the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.[1] Open-source
Open-source
software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. According to scientists who studied it, open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration.[2] The term is often written without a hyphen as "open source software".[3][4][5] Open-source
Open-source
software development, or collaborative development from multiple independent sources, generates an increasingly more diverse scope of design perspective than any one company is capable of developing and sustaining long term
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SRI International
SRI International
SRI International
(SRI) is an American nonprofit research institute headquartered in Menlo Park, California. The trustees of Stanford University established SRI in 1946 as a center of innovation to support economic development in the region. The organization was founded as the Stanford Research
Research
Institute. SRI formally separated from Stanford University
Stanford University
in 1970 and became known as SRI International
SRI International
in 1977. SRI performs client-sponsored research and development for government agencies, commercial businesses, and private foundations. It also licenses its technologies,[2] forms strategic partnerships, sells products,[3] and creates spin-off companies.[4] SRI's annual revenue in 2014 was approximately $540 million. SRI's headquarters are located near the Stanford University
Stanford University
campus. William A
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Network Control Program
The Network Control Program (NCP) provided the middle layers of the protocol stack running on host computers of the ARPANET, the predecessor to the modern Internet. NCP preceded the Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) as a transport layer protocol used during the early ARPANET. NCP was a simplex protocol that utilized two port addresses, establishing two connections, for two-way communications. An odd and an even port were reserved for each application layer application or protocol. The standardization of TCP and UDP reduced the need for the use of two simplex ports for each application down to one duplex port.[1]Contents1 History 2 Transition to TCP/IP 3 Notes 4 Further readingHistory[edit] NCP provided connections and flow control between processes running on different ARPANET
ARPANET
host computers
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Internet Protocol Suite
The Internet protocol
Internet protocol
suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet
Internet
and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP because the foundational protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) and the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP). It is occasionally known as the Department of Defense (DoD) model, because the development of the networking method was funded by the United States Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
through DARPA. The Internet protocol
Internet protocol
suite provides end-to-end data communication specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed, and received
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Full-stop
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eThe full point or full stop (British and broader Commonwealth English) or period (North American English) is a punctuation mark. It is used for several purposes, the most frequent of which is to mark the end of a sentence (other than a question or exclamation); this sentence-terminal use is properly the full stop
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Transmission Control Protocol
The Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite. It originated in the initial network implementation in which it complemented the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP). Therefore, the entire suite is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. TCP provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of a stream of octets (bytes) between applications running on hosts communicating by an IP network
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