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Władysław Gomułka
Władysław Gomułka
Władysław Gomułka
(Polish: [vwaˈdɨswaf ɡɔˈmuwka]; 6 February 1905 – 1 September 1982) was a Polish communist politician. He was the de facto leader of post-war Poland
Poland
until 1948. Following the Polish October
Polish October
he became leader again from 1956 to 1970. Gomułka was initially very popular for his reforms; his seeking a "Polish way to socialism";[1] and giving rise to the period known as "Gomułka's thaw". During the 1960s, however, he became more rigid and authoritarian—afraid of destabilizing the system, he was not inclined to introduce or permit changes
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Berlin
Berlin
Berlin
(/bɜːrˈlɪn/, German: [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn] ( listen)) is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states. With a steadily growing population of approximately 3.7 million,[4] Berlin
Berlin
is the second most populous city proper in the European Union
European Union
behind London
London
and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union.[5] Located in northeastern Germany
Germany
on the banks of the rivers Spree
Spree
and Havel, it is the centre of the Berlin- Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Metropolitan Region, which has roughly 6 million residents from more than 180 nations.[6][7][8][9] Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin
Berlin
is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate
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Ukrainian Language
Ukrainian /juːˈkreɪniən/ (listen) (українська мова ukrains'ka movaukrɑ'jınʲsʲkɑ 'mɔwɑ) is an East Slavic language. It is the official state language of Ukraine
Ukraine
and one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria, the other two being Romanian and Russian. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
(see Ukrainian alphabet). Historical linguists trace the origin of the Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
to the Old East Slavic
Old East Slavic
of the early medieval state of Kievan Rus'. After the fall of the Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
as well as the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, the language developed into a form called the Ruthenian language
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Austrian Partition
The Austrian Partition
Austrian Partition
(Polish: zabór austriacki) comprise the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
acquired by the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
during the Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland
in the late 18th century. The three partitions were conducted jointly by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
and Habsburg Austria, resulting in the complete elimination of the Polish Crown
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Galicia (Eastern Europe)
Galicia (/ɡəˈlɪʃ(i)ə/;[1] Ukrainian and Rusyn: Галичина, Halyčyna; Polish: Galicja; Czech and Slovak: Halič; German: Galizien; Hungarian: Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Romanian: Galiția/Halici; Russian: Галиция, Galitsiya; Yiddish: גאַליציע‎ Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region between Central and Eastern Europe[2][3][4]. It was once the small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, which straddled the modern-day border between Poland
Poland
and Ukraine
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Coat of arms Motto: "In God
God
We Trust"[1] .mw-parser-output .nobol
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Subcarpathia
Subcarpathia
Subcarpathia
(Polish: Podkarpacie; Ukrainian: Прикарпаття, Prykarpattia; Czech: Vněkarpatské sníženiny; German: Karpatenvorland) denotes the depression area at the outer (western, northern and eastern) base of the Carpathian arc. It stretches from Austria
Austria
to the Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine
Ukraine
and Romania. The opposite lowland plain inside the Carpathians is called the Pannonian Basin. Geography[edit] The western end is marked by the (northern) Vienna Basin, separating it from the Eastern Alpine Foreland
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Poverty In Austrian Galicia
Poverty in Galicia was extreme, particularly in the late 19th century. Galicia in that period has been described as not only the poorest province of Austro-Hungary, but the poorest province of Europe. The reasons included little interest in reform from the major landholders and the Austrian government, population growth resulting in small peasant plots, lack of education, primitive agricultural techniques, and a vicious circle of chronic malnutrition; famine; and disease, reducing productivity
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Left-wing Politics
Left-wing politics
Left-wing politics
supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.[1][2][3][4] It typically involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others (prioritarianism) as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished (by advocating for social justice).[1] The term left-wing can also refer to "the radical, reforming, or socialist section of a political party or system".[5] The political terms "Left" and "Right" were coined during the French Revolution (1789–1799), referring to the seating arrangement in the Estates General: those who sat on the left generally opposed the monarchy and supported the revolution, including the creation of a republic and secularization,[6] while those on the right were supportive of the traditional institutions of the Old Regime
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Herman Lieberman
Herman Lieberman
Herman Lieberman
(4 January 1870 – 21 October 1941) was a Polish lawyer and socialist politician. Life[edit] Lieberman was born into a Jewish family in Drohobycz, Galicia, then part of Austro-Hungary. From 1907 to 1914 and from 1917 to 1918, he was a member of parliament in Vienna. During World War I
World War I
he joined the Polish Legions of Józef Piłsudski as a private. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant and took part in the Battle of Kostiuchnówka, for which he was awarded the Polish Cross of Valor. During the Oath crisis, when Polish troops refused to swear allegiance to Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany, Lieberman served as the lawyer for the Polish troops which were charged with treason by the German authorities. After World War I
World War I
Lieberman became a leader of the Polish Socialist Party (PPS), serving on its executive committee
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Interpellation (politics)
Interpellation is the right of a parliament to submit questions to the government. In many parliaments, each individual member of parliament has the right to submit questions (possibly a limited amount during a certain period) to a member of the government. The respective minister or secretary is then required to respond and to justify government policy. Interpellation thus allows the parliament to supervise the government's activity. In this sense, it is closer to a motion of censure. In English, the parliamentary questioning sense of "interpellation" dates from the late 19th century. It has been adopted from French constitutional discourse. In some countries, for example Finland
Finland
and Slovenia, interpellations are more or less synonymous with a motion of no confidence because they are automatically connected with a vote of confidence and their express purpose is to determine the confidence enjoyed by the government or a minister
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Drohobych
Drohobych
Drohobych
(Ukrainian: Дрогóбич; Polish: Drohobycz; Yiddish: דראָהאָביטש‎;) is a city of regional significance in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Drohobych district. In 1939–1941 and 1944–1959 it was the center of Drohobych
Drohobych
Oblast. The city was founded at the end of eleventh century as an important trading post and transport node between Kyiv Rus' and the lands to the West of Rus'. After extinction of the local Ruthenian dynasty and subsequent incorporation of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
into the Polish Kingdom by 1349, from the fifteenth century the city was developing as a mercantile and saltworks centre. Drohobych
Drohobych
became part of Habsburg Empire in 1772 after the first partition of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
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Communist Party Of Poland
The Communist Party of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Komunistyczna Partia Polski, KPP) was a communist party in Poland. It was a result of the fusion of Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania (SDKPiL) and the Polish Socialist Party – Left in the Communist Workers Party of Poland
Poland
(Komunistyczna Partia Robotnicza Polski, KPRP).[1]Contents1 1918–21 2 1921–26 3 1926–38 4 Later parties 5 See also 6 Footnotes 7 Further reading 8 External links1918–21[edit] The KPRP was founded on 16 December 1918 as the result of the fusion of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania (SDKPiL) and the Polish Socialist Party-Lewica (Left) on the basis of the program of the former group
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Shipyard
A shipyard (also called a dockyard) is a place where ships are built and repaired. These can be yachts, military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships. Dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, which are sometimes associated more with initial construction. The terms are routinely used interchangeably, in part because the evolution of dockyards and shipyards has often caused them to change or merge roles. Countries with large shipbuilding industries include Croatia, China, South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Vietnam, Singapore, France, Russia, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Ukraine, Finland, Denmark, Australia, India, Brazil, Taiwan, Romania, Poland. The shipbuilding industry tends to be more fragmented in Europe
Europe
than in Asia
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Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw
(/ˈwɔːrsɔː/ WOR-saw; Polish: Warszawa [varˈʂava] (listen); see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula
Vistula
River in east-central Poland
Poland
and its population is officially estimated at 1.78 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents,[5] which makes Warsaw
Warsaw
the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi).[6] Warsaw
Warsaw
is an alpha global city,[7] a major international tourist destination, and a significant cultural, political and economic hub
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Central Committee
Central Committee was the common designation of a standing administrative body of communist parties, analogous to a board of directors, whether ruling or non-ruling in the 20th century
20th century
and of the surviving communist states in the 21st century. In such party organizations the committee would typically be made up of delegates elected at a party congress. In those states where it constituted the state power, the Central Committee made decisions for the party between congresses, and usually was (at least nominally) responsible for electing the Politburo
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