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Volost
Volost (Russian: во́лость, IPA: [ˈvoləsʲtʲ]) was a traditional administrative subdivision in Eastern Europe. In earlier East Slavic history, volost was a name for the territory ruled by the knyaz, a principality; either as an absolute ruler or with varying degree of autonomy from the Velikiy Knyaz
Knyaz
(Grand Prince). Starting from the end of the 14th century, volost was a unit of administrative division in Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Poland, Muscovy, lands of modern Latvia and Ukraine. Since about the 16th century it was a part of provincial districts, that were called "uyezd" in Muscovy
Muscovy
and the later Russian Empire. Each uyezd had several volosts that were subordinated to the uyezd city. After the abolition of Russian serfdom
Russian serfdom
in 1861, volost became a unit of peasant's local self-rule
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Court
A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.[1] In both common law and civil law legal systems, courts are the central means for dispute resolution, and it is generally understood that all persons have an ability to bring their claims before a court. Similarly, the rights of those accused of a crime include the right to present a defense before a court. The system of courts that interprets and applies the law is collectively known as the judiciary. The place where a court sits is known as a venue
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Pskov Oblast
Pskov
Pskov
Oblast (Russian: Пско́вская о́бласть, Pskovskaya oblast') is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(an oblast), located in the west of the country. Its administrative center is the city of Pskov
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Samara Oblast
Samara Oblast (Russian: Сама́рская о́бласть, tr. Samarskaya oblast, IPA: [sɐˈmarskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ]) is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Samara. From 1935 to 1991, it was known as Kuybyshev Oblast (Russian: Ку́йбышевская о́бласть, tr. Kuybyshevskaya Oblast, IPA: [ˈkujbɨʂɨfskəjə ˈobləstʲ]). As of the 2010 Census, the population of the oblast was 3,215,532.[9]Contents1 History 2 Administrative divisions 3 Demographics 4 Economy 5 Politics 6 Religion 7 Sister relations 8 References8.1 Notes 8.2 Sources9 External linksHistory[edit] The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
established a guberniya (governorate) in the area in 1851, the Samara Governorate, which was administered from the city of Samara
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Tula Oblast
Tula Oblast (Russian: Ту́льская о́бласть, Tulskaya oblast) is a top-level political division of European Russia
Russia
(namely an oblast). Its present borders were set on 26 September 1937. The city of Tula is its administrative center
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Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Europe
is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region".[1] A related United Nations
United Nations
paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct".[2] One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Byzantine, Eastern Orthodox, Russian, and some Ottoman culture influences.[3][4] Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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Federal Subjects Of Russia
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian: субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (Russian: субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.[1] Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally has consisted of 85 federal subjects,[2] although the two most recently added subjects are recognized by most states as part of Ukraine.[3][4] According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal importance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation.[5] Three Russian cities of federal importance (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol) have a status of both city and separate federal
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Starosta
The title of starost or starosta (Cyrillic: старост/а, Latin: capitaneus, German: Starost) designates an official or unofficial leader, used in various contexts through most of Slavic history. One can translate it as "senior" or "elder". The word comes from the Slavic root star-, "old". In Poland, a starosta would administer a territory called a starostwo. In the early Middle Ages, the starosta was the head of a Slavic community or of other communities so one finds designations such as church starosta, artel starosta, etc
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Corporal Punishment
Corporal punishment
Corporal punishment
or physical punishment is a punishment intended to cause physical pain on a person. It is most often practiced on minors, especially in home and school settings. Common methods include spanking or paddling. It has also historically been used on adults, particularly on prisoners and enslaved persons. Other common methods include flagellation and caning. Official punishment for crime by inflicting pain or injury, including flogging, branding and even mutilation, was practised in most civilizations since ancient times. However, with the growth of humanitarian ideals since the Enlightenment, such punishments were increasingly viewed as inhumane. By the late 20th century, corporal punishment had been eliminated from the legal systems of most developed countries.[1] The legality in the 21st century of corporal punishment in various settings differs by jurisdiction
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Republic Of Karelia
The Republic of Karelia
Karelia
(Russian: Респу́блика Каре́лия, tr. Respublika Kareliya, IPA: [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə kɐˈrʲelʲɪ(j)ə]; Karelian: Karjalan tazavalda; Finnish: Karjalan tasavalta; Veps: Karjalan Tazovaldkund) is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(a republic), located in the northwest of Russia. Its capital is the city of Petrozavodsk. Its population in 2010 was 643,548.[8] The modern Karelian Republic was founded as an autonomous republic within the Russian SFSR by the Resolution of the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee
All-Russian Central Executive Committee
(VTsIK) of June 27, 1923, and by the Decree of the VTsIK and the Council of People's Commissars of July 25, 1923, from the Karelian Labor Commune. From 1940 to 1956, it was known as the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic, one of the union republics in the Soviet Union
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Fine (penalty)
A fine or mulct is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence. The amount of a fine can be determined case by case, but it is often announced in advance.[1]A warning sign in Singapore that states the fine for releasing vehicles that are immobilized with wheel clamps by Singapore Police Force officers.The most usual use of the term is for financial punishments for the commission of crimes, especially minor crimes, or as the settlement of a claim. A synonym, typically used in civil law actions, is mulct. One common example of a fine is money paid for violations of traffic laws. Currently in English common law, relatively small fines are used either in place of or alongside community service orders for low-level criminal offences
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Incarceration
Imprisonment (from imprison Old French, French emprisonner, from en in + prison prison, from Latin prensio, arrest, from prehendere, prendere, to seize) is the restraint of a person's liberty, for any cause whatsoever, whether by authority of the government, or by a person acting without such authority. In the latter case it is "false imprisonment". Imprisonment does not necessarily imply a place of confinement, with bolts and bars, but may be exercised by any use or display of force, lawfully or unlawfully, wherever displayed, even in the open street
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Public Domain
The legal term public domain refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired,[1] have been forfeited,[2] have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable.[3] For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven, and most early silent films are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired.[1] Some works are not covered by copyright, and are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes,[4] and all computer software created prior to 1974.[5]
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Walter Alison Phillips
Walter Alison Phillips (21 October 1864 – 28 October 1950) was an English historian, a specialist in the history of Europe in the 19th century. From 1914 to 1939 he was the first holder of the Lecky chair of History in Trinity College, Dublin. Most of his writing is in the name of W
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain; and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in.[1] However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic
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