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Volcanism Of Canada
Volcanology of Canada
Canada
includes lava flows, lava plateaus, lava domes, cinder cones, stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, submarine volcanoes, calderas, diatremes, and maars, along with examples of more less common volcanic forms such as tuyas and subglacial mounds
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Greenstone Belt
Greenstone belts are zones of variably metamorphosed mafic to ultramafic volcanic sequences with associated sedimentary rocks that occur within Archaean and Proterozoic
Proterozoic
cratons between granite and gneiss bodies. The name comes from the green hue imparted by the colour of the metamorphic minerals within the mafic rocks: the typical green minerals are chlorite, actinolite, and other green amphiboles. A greenstone belt is typically several dozens to several thousand kilometres long and although composed of a great variety of individual rock units, is considered a 'stratigraphic grouping' in its own right, at least on continental scales. Typically, a greenstone belt within the greater volume of otherwise homogeneous granite-gneiss within a craton contains a significantly larger degree of heterogeneity and complications and forms a tectonic marker far more distinct than the much more voluminous and homogeneous granites
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Mineralization (geology)
In geology, mineralization is the deposition of economically important metals in the formation of ore bodies or "lodes" by various process. The first scientific studies of this process took place in the English county of Cornwall
Cornwall
by J.W.Henwood FRS and later by R.W. Fox, FRS.[1] The term can also refer to the process by which waterborne minerals, such as calcium carbonate (calcite), iron oxide (hematite or limonite) or silica (quartz), replace organic material within the body of an organism that has died and was buried by sediments.[2] Mineralization may also refer to the product resulting from the process of mineralization. For example, mineralization (the process) may introduce metals (such as iron) into a rock. That rock may then be referred to as possessing iron mineralization. See also[edit] Ore
Ore
genesisReferences[edit]^ Embrey, P. G. and Symes, R. F
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Tuya
A tuya is a type of distinctive, flat-topped, steep-sided volcano formed when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet. They are somewhat rare worldwide, being confined to regions which were covered by glaciers and had active volcanism during the same period. Lava
Lava
that erupts under a glacier cools very quickly and cannot travel far, so it piles up into a steep-sided hill. If the eruption continues long enough, it either melts all the ice or emerges through the top of the ice and then creates normal-looking lava flows that make a flat cap on top of the hill
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Subglacial Mound
A subglacial mound (SUGM) is a type of subglacial volcano. This type of volcano forms when lava erupts beneath a thick glacier or ice sheet. The magma forming these volcanoes was not hot enough to melt a vertical pipe right through the overlying glacial ice, instead forming hyaloclastite and pillow lava deep beneath the glacial ice field. Once the glaciers had retreated, the subglacial volcano would be revealed, with a unique shape as a result of their confinement within glacial ice.[1] They are somewhat rare worldwide, being confined to regions which were formerly covered by continental ice sheets and also had active volcanism during the same period. They are found throughout Iceland, Antarctica
Antarctica
and the Canadian province of British Columbia. Subglacial mounds can be mistaken for cinder cones because they may have a similar shape
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Volcanism
Volcanism
Volcanism
is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.[1] It includes all phenomena resulting from and causing magma within the crust or mantle of the body, to rise through the crust and form volcanic rocks on the surface.Contents1 Volcanic processes 2 Driving forces of volcanism 3 Aspects of volcanism3.1 Volcanoes 3.2 Intrusions 3.3 Earthquakes 3.4 Hydrothermal
Hydrothermal
vents 3.5 Volcanic winter4 Forming rocks 5 Volcanism
Volcanism
on other bodies 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksVolcanic processes[edit]Non-viscous lava during an effusive eruption of Kīlauea Magma
Magma
from the mantle or lower crust rises through its crust towards the surface
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Western Canada
Western Canada, also referred to as the Western provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region of Canada
Canada
that includes the four provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba
Manitoba

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Northern Canada
Northern Canada, colloquially the North, is the vast northernmost region of Canada
Canada
variously defined by geography and politics. Politically, the term refers to three territories of Canada: Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Similarly, the Far North (when contrasted to the North) may refer to the Canadian Arctic: the portion of Canada
Canada
north of the Arctic
Arctic
Circle and lies east of Alaska
Alaska
and west of Greenland. This area covers about 39 percent of Canada's total land area, but has less than 1 percent of Canada's population. For some purposes,[clarification needed] Northern Canada
Canada
may also include Northern Quebec
Quebec
and Northern Labrador. These reckonings somewhat depend on the arbitrary concept of nordicity, a measure of so-called "northernness" that other Arctic territories share
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Earthquake
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities. The seismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. The word tremor is also used for non-earthquake seismic rumbling. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami
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Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean
Ocean
is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
in the north to the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
(or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by Asia
Asia
and Australia
Australia
in the west and the Americas
Americas
in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 square miles) in area (as defined with an Antarctic
Antarctic
southern border), this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined.[1] Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
are in the Pacific Ocean
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Western United States
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. Because European settlement in the U.S. expanded westward after its founding, the meaning of the West has evolved over time. Prior to about 1800, the crest of the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
was seen as the western frontier. Since then, the frontier generally moved westward and eventually, the lands west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
came to be referred to as the West.[2] Though no consensus exists, even among experts, for the definition of the West as a region, the U.S
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Aleutian Islands
The Aleutian Islands
Aleutian Islands
(Aleut: Tanam Unangaa, literally "Land of the Aleuts"; pronounced (/əˈluːʃən/;[2][3] possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Alaska
Alaska
and the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai.[1] They form part of the Aleutian Arc
Aleutian Arc
in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km2) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900 km) westward from the Alaska
Alaska
Peninsula toward the Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
in Russia, and mark a dividing line between the Bering Sea
Bering Sea
to the north and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the south
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Alaska
Coordinates: 64°N 150°W / 64°N 150°W / 64; -150[1]State of AlaskaFlag SealNickname(s): The Last FrontierMotto(s): North to the FutureState song(s): "Alaska's Flag"Official language English, Inupiat, Central Siberian Yupik, Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Alutiiq, Aleut, Dena'ina, Deg Xinag, Holikachuk, Koyukon, Upper Kuskokwim, Gwich'in, Lower Tanana, Upper Tanana, Tanacross, Hän, Ahtna, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Coast TsimshianSpoken languages English 86.3% Alaska Native languages 5.2% Tagalog 3.4% Spanish 2.9% Others 2.2%Demonym AlaskanCapital JuneauLargest city AnchorageArea Ranked 1st • Total 663,268 sq mi (1,717,856 km2) • Width 2,261 miles (3,639 km
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North America
North America
North America
is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[3][4] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Diatreme
A diatreme, sometimes known as a maar-diatreme volcano, is a volcanic pipe formed by a gaseous explosion. When magma rises up through a crack in the Earth's crust and makes contact with a shallow body of ground water, rapid expansion of heated water vapor and volcanic gases can cause a series of explosions. A relatively shallow crater is left (known as a maar) and a rock filled fracture (the actual diatreme) in the Earth's crust. Diatremes breach the Earth's surface and produce a steep inverted cone shape. The term diatreme has been applied more generally to any concave body of broken rock formed by explosive or hydrostatic forces, whether or not it is related to volcanism. Global distribution[edit] Maar-diatreme volcanoes are not uncommon, reported as the second most common type of volcanoes on continents and islands. Igneous intrusions cause the formation of a diatreme, only in the specific setting where groundwater exists
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Canadian Shield
The Canadian Shield, also called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier canadien (French), is a large area of exposed Precambrian
Precambrian
igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks (geological shield) that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent (the North American Craton
Craton
or Laurentia). Composed of igneous rock resulting from its long volcanic history, the area is covered by a thin layer of soil.[3] With a deep, common, joined bedrock region in eastern and central Canada, it stretches north from the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
to the Arctic Ocean, covering over half of Canada; it also extends south into the northern reaches of the United States
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