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Vocaloid
Vocaloid
Vocaloid
(ボーカロイド, Bōkaroido) is a singing voice synthesizer. Its signal processing part was developed through a joint research project led by Kenmochi Hideki at the Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona, Spain, in 2000, and originally was not intended to be a full commercial project[1]. Backed by the Yamaha Corporation, it developed the software into the commercial product "Vocaloid".[2][3] The software enables users to synthesize "singing" by typing in lyrics and melody. It uses synthesizing technology with specially recorded vocals of voice actors or singers. To create a song, the user must input the melody and lyrics. A piano roll type interface is used to input the melody and the lyrics can be entered on each note
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Software Developer
A software developer is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming, and testing of computer software. Other job titles which are often used with similar meanings are programmer, software analyst, and software engineer. According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development, and programming are more apparent. Already in the current market place there can be found a segregation between programmers and developers, being that one who implements is not the same as the one who designs the class structure or hierarchy. Even more so that developers become software architects or systems architects, those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system.[1] In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of only one of the phases above
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Vibrato
Vibrato
Vibrato
(Italian, from past participle of "vibrare", to vibrate) is a musical effect consisting of a regular, pulsating change of pitch. It is used to add expression to vocal and instrumental music. Vibrato
Vibrato
is typically characterised in terms of two factors: the amount of pitch variation ("extent of vibrato") and the speed with which the pitch is varied ("rate of vibrato").[1] In singing it can occur spontaneously through variations in the larynx
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Korean Language
The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science 사회과학원 어학연구소 / 社會科學院 語學研究所 (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) National Institute of the Korean Language 국립국어원 / 國立國語院 (Republic of Korea) China
China
Korean Language Regulatory Commission 중국조선어규범위원회 中国朝鲜语规范委员会 (People's Republic of China)Language codesISO 639-1 koISO 639-2 korISO 639-3 Variously: kor – Modern Korean jje – Jeju okm – Middle Korean oko – Old Korean oko – Proto KoreanLinguist Listokm Middle Korean  oko Old KoreanGlottolog kore1280[2]Linguasphere 45-AAA-aCountries with native Korean-speaking populations (established immigrant communities in green).This article contains IPA phonetic symbols
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Compilation Album
A compilation album comprises tracks, either previously released or unreleased, usually from several separate recordings by either one or several performers. If by one artist, then generally the tracks were not originally intended for release together as a single work, but may be collected together as a greatest hits album or box set. If from several performers, there may be a theme, topic, or genre which links the tracks, or they may have been intended for release as a single work—such as a tribute album. When the tracks are by the same recording artist, the album may be referred to as a retrospective album or an anthology. Compilation albums may employ traditional product bundling strategies.Contents1 Common types 2 Royalties 3 Charts 4 See also 5 ReferencesCommon types[edit] Common types of compilation include:"Greatest hits", "best of", or "singles collection" LPs, gathering together an artist's or a group's best-known songs
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Spectral Modeling Synthesis
Spectral modeling synthesis
Spectral modeling synthesis
or simply SMS is an acoustic modeling approach for speech and other signals. SMS considers sounds as a combination of harmonic content and noise content. Harmonic components are identified based on peaks in the frequency spectrum of the signal, normally as found by the short-time Fourier transform. The signal that remains following removal of the spectral components, sometimes referred to as the residual, is then modeled as white noise passed through a time-varying filter. The output of the model, then, are the frequencies and levels of the detected harmonic components and the coefficients of the time-varying filter. Intuitively, the model can be applied to many types of audio signals. Speech signals, for example, include slowly changing harmonic sounds caused by vibration of the vocal cords plus wideband, noise-like sounds caused by the lips and mouth
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Source–filter Model Of Speech Production
The source–filter model of speech production models speech as a combination of a sound source, such as the vocal cords, and a linear acoustic filter, the vocal tract (and radiation characteristic). An important assumption that is often made in the use of the source-filter model is the independence of source and filter. In such cases, the model should more accurately be referred to as the "independent source-filter model". While only an approximation, the model is widely used in a number of applications because of its relative simplicity. To varying degrees, different phonemes can be distinguished by the properties of their source(s) and their spectral shape. Voiced sounds (e.g., vowels) have (at least) a source due to (mostly) periodic glottal excitation, which can be approximated by an impulse train in the time domain and by harmonics in the frequency domain, and a filter that depends on, e.g., tongue position and lip protrusion
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Frequency Domain
In electronics, control systems engineering, and statistics, the frequency domain refers to the analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time.[1] Put simply, a time-domain graph shows how a signal changes over time, whereas a frequency-domain graph shows how much of the signal lies within each given frequency band over a range of frequencies. A frequency-domain representation can also include information on the phase shift that must be applied to each sinusoid in order to be able to recombine the frequency components to recover the original time signal. A given function or signal can be converted between the time and frequency domains with a pair of mathematical operators called a transform. An example is the Fourier transform, which converts the time function into a sum of sine waves of different frequencies, each of which represents a frequency component
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Time-frequency Representation
A time–frequency representation (TFR) is a view of a signal (taken to be a function of time) represented over both time and frequency.[1] Time–frequency analysis means analysis into the time–frequency domain provided by a TFR. This is achieved by using a formulation often called "Time– Frequency
Frequency
Distribution", abbreviated as TFD. TFRs are often complex-valued fields over time and frequency, where the modulus of the field represents either amplitude or "energy density" (the concentration of the root mean square over time and frequency), and the argument of the field represents phase.Contents1 Background and motivation 2 Formulation of TFRs and TFDs2.1 Quadratic forms 2.2 Linear forms3 Wavelet transforms 4 Linear canonical transformation 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksBackground and motivation[edit] A signal, as a function of time, may be considered as a representation with perfect time resolution
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Articulation (music)
In music, articulation is the direction or performance technique which affects the transition or continuity on a single note or between multiple notes or sounds.Contents1 Types of articulations. 2 Procedure2.1 Brass and woodwind instruments 2.2 Bowed instruments3 Compound articulations3.1 Apagados4 See also 5 Bibliography 6 External linksTypes of articulations.[edit] There are many types of articulation, each with a different effect on how the note is played. In music notation articulation marks include the slur, phrase mark, staccato, staccatissimo, accent, sforzando, rinforzando, and legato
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Spanish Language
The Spanish language
Spanish language
(/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen);  Español (help·info)), also called the Castilian language[4] (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen),  castellano (help·info)), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin
Latin
America and Spain. It is usually considered the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.[5][6][7][8][9] Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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WAV
Waveform
Waveform
Audio File
File
Format (WAVE, or more commonly known as WAV due to its filename extension - both pronounced "wave"[6])[3][7][8][9] (rarely, Audio for Windows)[10] is a Microsoft
Microsoft
and IBM
IBM
audio file format standard for storing an audio bitstream on PCs. It is an application of the Resource Interchange File
File
Format (RIFF) bitstream format method for storing data in "chunks", and thus is also close to the 8SVX and the AIFF format used on Amiga
Amiga
and Macintosh
Macintosh
computers, respectively. It is the main format used on Windows
Windows
systems for raw and typically uncompressed audio
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Digital Audio Workstation
A digital audio workstation (DAW) is an electronic device or application software used for recording, editing and producing audio files. DAWs come in a wide variety of configurations from a single software program on a laptop, to an integrated stand-alone unit, all the way to a highly complex configuration of numerous components controlled by a central computer
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Pronunciation Respelling
A pronunciation respelling is a regular phonetic respelling of a word that does have a standard spelling, so as to indicate the pronunciation. Pronunciation respellings are sometimes seen in dictionaries. This should not be confused with pronunciation spelling, which is an ad hoc spelling of a word that has no standard spelling. Most of these are nonce coinages, but some have become standardized, e.g. gonna to represent the pronunciation of going to, as in I'm gonna catch you.Contents1 Respelling 2 Literary dialect 3 Other uses 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksRespelling[edit] Pronunciation spellings may be used informally to indicate the pronunciation of foreign words or those whose spelling is irregular or not sufficient to deduce the pronunciation. This is called respelling. In such cases, typeface, punctuation or letter case may also be used, e.g
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MIDI Keyboard
A MIDI
MIDI
keyboard is typically a piano-style electronic musical keyboard, often with other buttons, wheels and sliders, used for sending MIDI
MIDI
signals or commands over a USB or MIDI
MIDI
5-pin cable to other musical devices or computers connected and operating on the same MIDI
MIDI
protocol. The basic MIDI
MIDI
keyboard does not produce sounds by itself, as it lacks an onboard sound engine
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Database
A database is an organized collection of data.[1] A relational database, more restrictively, is a collection of schemas, tables, queries, reports, views, and other elements. Database
Database
designers typically organize the data to model aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring information, such as (for example) modelling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies. A database-management system (DBMS) is a computer-software application that interacts with end-users, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data
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