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Vocal Resonation
McKinney defines vocal resonance as "the process by which the basic product of phonation is enhanced in timbre and/or intensity by the air-filled cavities through which it passes on its way to the outside air."[1] Throughout the vocal literature, various terms related to resonation are used, including: amplification, filtering, enrichment, enlargement, improvement, intensification, and prolongation. Acoustic authorities would question many of these terms from a strictly scientific perspective
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Bass Voice
A bass (/beɪs/ BAYSS) is a type of classical male singing voice and has the lowest vocal range of all voice types. According to The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, a bass is typically classified as having a vocal range extending from around the second E below middle C to the E above middle C (i.e., E2–E4).[1] Its tessitura, or comfortable range, is normally defined by the outermost lines of the bass clef. Categories of bass voices vary according to national style and classification system. Italians favour subdividing basses into the basso cantante (singing bass), basso buffo ("funny" bass), or the dramatic basso profondo (low bass). The American system[2] identifies the bass-baritone, comic bass, lyric bass, and dramatic bass. The German fach system[3] offers further distinctions: Spielbass (Bassbuffo), Schwerer Spielbass (Schwerer Bassbuffo), Charakterbass (Bassbariton), and Seriöser Bass. These classification systems can overlap
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Crooning
Crooner
Crooner
is an American epithet given primarily to male singers of jazz standards, mostly from the Great American Songbook, backed by either a full orchestra, a big band or a piano. Originally it was an ironic term denoting a sentimental singing style made possible by the use of microphones. Some performers, such as Russ Columbo, did not accept the term:[1] Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
once said that he did not consider himself or Bing Crosby
Bing Crosby
"crooners".[citation needed]Contents1 History 2 Decline 3 Country crooners 4 See also 5 Footnotes 6 Further readingHistory[edit]Perry Como, October 1946Gene Austin"Learn to Croon" Bing Crosby
Bing Crosby
demonstrates how to croon in this 1933 recordingProblems playing this file? See media help.This dominant popular vocal style coincided with the advent of radio broadcasting and electrical recording
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Lead Vocals
The lead vocalist, main vocalist, lead vocals or lead singer in popular music is typically the member of a group or band whose voice is the most prominent in a performance where multiple voices may be heard.[1] The lead singer either leads the vocal ensemble, or sets against the ensemble as the dominant sound.[1] In vocal group performances, notably in soul and gospel music, and early rock and roll, the lead singer takes the main vocal part, with a chorus provided by other band members as backing vocalists. Especially in rock music, the lead singer or solo singer is often the front man[2] or front woman, who may also play one or more instruments and is often seen as the leader or spokesman of the band by the public. As an example in rock music, Mick Jagger
Mick Jagger
is the lead singer of The Rolling Stones
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Soprano
A soprano [soˈpraːno] is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types. The soprano's vocal range (using scientific pitch notation) is from approximately middle C (C4) = 261 Hz to "high A" (A5) =880 Hz in choral music, or to "soprano C" (C6, two octaves above middle C) =1046 Hz or higher in operatic music. In four-part chorale style harmony, the soprano takes the highest part, which usually encompasses the melody.[1] The soprano voice type is generally divided into the coloratura, soubrette, lyric, spinto, and dramatic soprano
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Mezzo-soprano
A mezzo-soprano or mezzo (English: /ˈmɛtsoʊ/, /ˈmɛzoʊ/; Italian: [ˈmɛddzo soˈpraːno] meaning "half soprano") is a type of classical female singing voice whose vocal range lies between the soprano and the contralto voice types. The mezzo-soprano's vocal range usually extends from the A below middle C to the A two octaves above (i.e. A3–A5 in scientific pitch notation, where middle C = C4)
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Contralto
A contralto (Italian pronunciation: [konˈtralto]) is a type of classical female singing voice whose vocal range is the lowest female voice type.[1] The contralto's vocal range is fairly rare; similar to, but different from the alto, and almost identical to that of a countertenor, typically between the F below middle C (F3 in scientific pitch notation) to the second F above middle C (F5), although, at the extremes, some voices can reach the E below middle C (E3) or the second B♭ above middle C (B♭5).[1] The contralto voice type is generally divided into the coloratura, lyric, and dramatic contralto.Contents1 History 2 Voice type 3 Subtypes and roles in opera3.1 Coloratura 3.2 Lyric 3.3 Dramatic4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory[edit] "Contralto" is primarily meaningful only in reference to classical and operatic singing, as other traditions lack a comparable system of vocal categorization
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Countertenor
A countertenor (also contra tenor) is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range is equivalent to that of the female contralto or mezzo-soprano voice types, generally extending from around G3 to D5 or E5,[1] although a sopranist (a specific kind of countertenor) may match the soprano's range of around C4 to C6.[2] Countertenors often are baritones or tenors at core, but rarely use this vocal range in performance. The nature of the counter-tenor voice has radically changed throughout musical history, from a modal voice, to a modal and falsetto voice, to the primarily falsetto voice which is denoted by the term today. This is partly because of changes in human physiology, and partly because of fluctuations in pitch.[3] The term first came into use in England during the mid-17th century, and was in wide use by the late 17th century
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Tenor Voice
Tenor
Tenor
is a type of classical male singing voice, the vocal range of which is between the countertenor and baritone voice types. The tenor's vocal range (in choral music) lies between C3, the C one octave below middle C, and A4, the A above middle C. In solo work, this range extends up to C5, or "tenor high C". The low extreme for tenors is roughly A♭2 (two A♭s below middle C)
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Baritone
A baritone[1] is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor voice types. It is the most common male voice.[2][3] Originally from the Greek βαρύτονος (barýtonos), meaning heavy sounding, music for this voice is typically written in the range from the second F below middle C to the F above middle C (i.e. F2–F4) in choral music, and from the second A below middle C to the A above middle C (A2 to A4) in operatic music, but can be extended at either end
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Bass-baritone
A bass-baritone is a high-lying bass or low-lying "classical" baritone voice type which shares certain qualities with the true baritone voice. The term arose in the late 19th century to describe the particular type of voice required to sing three Wagnerian roles: the Dutchman in Der fliegende Holländer, Wotan/Der Wanderer in the Ring Cycle and Hans Sachs in Die Meistersinger
Die Meistersinger
von Nürnberg. Wagner labelled these roles as Hoher Bass ("high bass")—see fach for more details.[1] The bass-baritone voice is distinguished by two attributes. First, it must be capable of singing comfortably in a baritonal tessitura. Secondly, however, it needs to have the ripely resonant lower range typically associated with the bass voice
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Quintus (vocal Music)
The Latin word quintus, also quinta or quinta vox, refers to the fifth voice in addition to the superius, altus, tenor and bassus in a piece of vocal polyphony.[1] In Baroque vocal music, this fifth voice was added to the principal part and then given to the tenor.[2] The word was particularly used for printed partbooks of five-voice music, where the "quintus" melody might well be for different voices like the discantus or even the contratenor, in addition to the usual four.[3] By overlaying voices in different planes, the compositional style of the seventeenth century was enriched with polyphonic sounds, expanding itself both to the low as well as the high pitch
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Non-lexical Vocables In Music
Non-lexical vocables, which may be mixed with meaningful text, are a form of nonsense syllable used in a wide variety of music. A common English example would be "la la la" or "da da da".Contents1 Traditional music 2 Jazz music 3 Vocal percussion 4 Musical training 5 Popular music of the WWII era 6 Popular music 7 Disney
Disney
songs 8 References 9 Further readingTraditional music[edit] Non-lexical vocables are used in yodeling, Blackfoot music
Blackfoot music
and other Native American music, Pygmy music, the music of the Maldives, Irish music, and Highland Scots music. Vocables frequently act as formal markers, indicating the beginning and end of phrases, sections or songs themselves,[1] and also as onomatopoeic references, cueing devices, and other purposes.[2] The Blackfoot, like other Plains Indians, use the consonants h, y, w, and vowels. They avoid n, c (ts) and other consonants
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Lied
The lied (/liːd, liːt/, plural lieder /ˈliːdər/;[1][2][3] German pronunciation: [liːt], plural [ˈliːdɐ], German for "song") is a setting of a German poem to classical music. The term is used for songs from the late fourteenth or early fifteenth centuries or even to refer to Minnesang
Minnesang
from as early as the 12th and 13th centuries.[4] It later came especially to refer to settings of Romantic poetry
Romantic poetry
during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and into the early twentieth century. Examples include settings by Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms, Hugo Wolf
Hugo Wolf
or Richard Strauss. Among English speakers, however, "lied" is often used interchangeably with "art song" to encompass works that the tradition has inspired in other languages
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Rapping
Rapping
Rapping
(or rhyming, spitting,[1] emceeing,[2] MCing[2][3]) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular",[4] which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backbeat or musical accompaniment.[4] The components of rap include "content" (what is being said), "flow" (rhythm, rhyme), and "delivery" (cadence, tone).[5] Rap differs from spoken-word poetry in that rap is usually performed in time to an instrumental track.[6] Rap is often associated with, and is a primary ingredient of hip-hop music, but the origins of the phenomenon predate hip-hop culture
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Scat Singing
In vocal jazz, scat singing is vocal improvisation with wordless vocables, nonsense syllables or without words at all. In scat singing, the singer improvises melodies and rhythms using the voice as an instrument rather than a speaking medium.Contents1 Characteristics1.1 Structure and syllable choice 1.2 Humor2 History2.1 Origins 2.2 Later development 2.3 Vocal bass 2.4 Use in hip hop3 Music historical explanations 4 Critical assessment 5 Notes 6 See also 7 References 8 Works cited 9 External linksCharacteristics[edit] Structure and syllable choice[edit] Though scat singing is improvised, the melodic lines are often variations on scale and arpeggio fragments, stock patterns and riffs, as is the case with instrumental improvisers. As well, scatting usually incorporates musical structure
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