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Vladimir Governorate
A governorate, or a guberniya (Russian: губе́рния, IPA: [ɡʊˈbʲɛrnʲɪjə]; also romanized gubernia, guberniia, gubernya), was a major and principal administrative subdivision of the Russian Empire
Empire
and the early Russian SFSR and Ukrainian SSR. The term is usually translated as government, governorate, or province. A governorate was ruled by a governor (губернатор, gubernator), a word borrowed from Latin gubernator, in turn from Greek kybernetes. Sometimes the term guberniya was informally used to refer to the office of a governor. Selected governorates were united under an assigned governor general such as Grand Duchy of Finland, Tsardom of Poland, Russian Turkestan and others. There also were military governors such as Kronshtadt, Vladivostok, and others
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Ukrainian People's Republic
The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic (Украінська Народня Республіка, in modern orthography Ukrainian: Українська Народна Республіка, Ukrajinśka Narodna Respublika; abbreviated УНР, UNR), was a predecessor of modern Ukraine declared on 10 June 1917 following the Russian Revolution
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Län
Län
Län
(Swedish, IPA: [ˈlɛːn] ( listen)) and lääni (Finnish, IPA: [ˈlæːni]) refer to the administrative divisions used in Sweden
Sweden
and previously in Finland. The provinces of Finland were abolished on January 1, 2010.[1] They are also sometimes used in other countries, especially as a translation of the Russian word oblast. During the period when Finland was a part of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(1809-1917), when Russian was made an official language alongside Swedish, it was synonymous with the word guberniya.Contents1 The term 2 The län 3 The landsting 4 The landshövding 5 NotesThe term[edit] The word literally means fief
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History Of The Administrative Division Of Russia
The modern administrative-territorial structure of Russia is a system of territorial organization which is a product of a centuries-long evolution and reforms.Contents1 Early history 2 Imperial Russia2.1 Administrative reforms by Peter the Great 2.2 Subsequent reforms 2.3 Administrative reforms by Catherine the Great 2.4 Reforms in the 19th century 2.5 Reforms in the 20th century3 Soviet Russia 4 Russian Federation 5 References5.1 Notes 5.2 Sources6 External linksEarly history[edit] Further information: List of historic states of Russia The Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
as it formed in the 10th century remained a more or less unified realm under the rule of Yaroslav the Wise
Yaroslav the Wise
(d
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Ingermanland
Historical Ingria
Ingria
(Finnish: Inkeri or Inkerinmaa; Russian: Ингрия, Ingriya, Ижорская земля, Izhorskaya zemlya, or Ингерманландия, Ingermanlandiya; Swedish: Ingermanland; Estonian: Ingeri or Ingerimaa) is the geographical area located along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, bordered by Lake Ladoga
Lake Ladoga
on the Karelian Isthmus
Karelian Isthmus
in the north and by the River Narva
Narva
on the border with Estonia
Estonia
in the west. The Orthodox Izhorians, along with the Votes, are the indigenous people of historical Ingria. With the consolidation of the Kievan Rus and the expansion of the Republic of Novgorod
Republic of Novgorod
north, the indigenous Ingrians became Greek Orthodox
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Administrative Division Of Congress Poland
The administrative division of Congress Poland
Congress Poland
changed several times. Immediately after its creation, 1815-1816, the Congress Kingdom of Poland
Poland
was divided into departments, a relic from the times of the French-dominated Duchy of Warsaw. In 1816 the administrative divisions were reformed into the more traditionally Polish voivodeships, obwóds and powiats. In 1837, in the aftermath of the November Uprising earlier that decade, the administrative division was reformed once again, bringing Congress Poland
Congress Poland
closer to the structure of the Russian Empire, with the introduction of guberniyas (governorate, Polish spelling gubernia), gradually transforming Congress Poland
Congress Poland
into the "Vistulan Country"
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Empire
An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".[1] An empire can be made solely of contiguous territories such as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, or of territories far remote from the homeland, such as a colonial empire. Aside from the more formal usage, the term "empire" can also be used to refer to a large-scale business enterprise (e.g
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Congress Poland
The Kingdom of Poland,[1] informally known as Congress Poland[2] or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland
Poland
connected by personal union with the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
until 1832
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Finnish Language
Finnish ( suomi (help·info), or suomen kieli [ˈsuomen ˈkieli]) is a Finnic language
Finnic language
spoken by the majority of the population in Finland
Finland
and by ethnic Finns
Finns
outside Finland. It is one of the two official languages of Finland
Finland
and an official minority language in Sweden. In Sweden, both standard Finnish and Meänkieli, a Finnish dialect, are spoken. The Kven language, a dialect of Finnish, is spoken in Northern Norway
Norway
by a minority group of Finnish descent. Finnish is a member of the Finnic language
Finnic language
family and is typologically between fusional and agglutinative languages
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Swedish Language
Swedish ( svenska (help·info) [²svɛnːska]) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden
Sweden
(as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era
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Administrative Divisions Of Russia In 1708-1710
The administrative division reform of 1708 was carried out by Russian Tsar Peter the Great in an attempt to improve the manageability of the vast territory of Russia. Prior to the reform, the country was subdivided into uyezds and volosts, and in the 17th century the number of the uyezds was 166.[1] Creation[edit] On December 29 [O.S. December 18], 1708, Peter issued an edict dividing Russia into eight governorates (guberniyas).[2] The edict established neither the borders of the governorates nor their internal divisions; instead, their territories were defined as the sets of cities and the lands adjacent to those cities.[1] Some older subdivision types also continued to be used.[1] List of the governorates created in 1708[edit]Governorate Name in Russian Area No
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Polish Language
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages.[8] Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż)
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Russian Revolution Of 1917
The Russian Revolution
Revolution
was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy
Tsarist autocracy
and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar
Julian calendar
was in use in Russia at the time). Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies (called 'soviets') which contended for authority
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Volost
Volost (Russian: во́лость, IPA: [ˈvoləsʲtʲ]) was a traditional administrative subdivision in Eastern Europe. In earlier East Slavic history, volost was a name for the territory ruled by the knyaz, a principality; either as an absolute ruler or with varying degree of autonomy from the Velikiy Knyaz
Knyaz
(Grand Prince). Starting from the end of the 14th century, volost was a unit of administrative division in Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Poland, Muscovy, lands of modern Latvia and Ukraine. Since about the 16th century it was a part of provincial districts, that were called "uyezd" in Muscovy
Muscovy
and the later Russian Empire. Each uyezd had several volosts that were subordinated to the uyezd city. After the abolition of Russian serfdom
Russian serfdom
in 1861, volost became a unit of peasant's local self-rule
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Governing Senate
The Governing Senate
Governing Senate
(Правительствующий сенат) was a legislative, judicial, and executive body of the Russian Emperors, instituted by Peter the Great to replace the Boyar Duma
Duma
and lasted until the very end of the Russian Empire. It was chaired by the Procurator General, who served as the link between the sovereign and the Senate; he acted, in the emperor's own words, as "the sovereign's eye". Originally established only for the time of Peter's absence, it became a permanent body after his return. The number of senators was first set at nine and, in 1712, increased to ten. Any disagreements between the Chief Procurator and the Senate were to be settled by the monarch. Certain other officials and a chancellery were also attached to the Senate
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Kiev Governorate
A governorate is an administrative division of a country. It is headed by a governor. As English-speaking
English-speaking
nations tend to call regions administered by governors either states, provinces, or colonies, the term governorate is often used in translation from non- English-speaking
English-speaking
administrations. The most common usage is as a translation of the Arabic
Arabic
Muhafazah. It may also refer to the guberniya and general-gubernatorstvo of Imperial Russia or the 34 gobernaciones of Imperial Spain.Contents1 Arab countries 2 Russian Empire2.1 Congress Kingdom of Poland 2.2 Grand Duchy of Finland3 Portuguese Empire 4 Spanish Empire 5 Italian Empire 6 Germany 7 Romania 8 Vatican City 9 ReferencesArab countries[edit] The term governorate is widely used in Arab countries to describe an administrative unit
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