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Vitebsk
VITEBSK or VITSEBSK (Belarusian : Ві́цебск, Łacinka : Viciebsk, pronounced ; Russian : Витебск, pronounced ), is a city in Belarus
Belarus
. The capital of the Vitebsk Region , in 2004 it had 342,381 inhabitants, making it the country's fourth largest city. It is served by Vitebsk Vostochny Airport and Vitebsk
Vitebsk
air base . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Post-war period * 1.2 Independence of Belarus
Belarus
* 2 Attractions * 3 Climate * 4 Education * 5 Notable people * 6 Website * 7 Sources * 8 Notes * 9 External links HISTORY View of Vitebsk
Vitebsk
in the early 19th century by Józef Peszka
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Baltic Sea
The BALTIC SEA is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, enclosed by Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, Finland
Finland
, the Baltic countries , and the North European Plain . It includes the Gulf of Bothnia , the Bay of Bothnia , the Gulf of Finland
Finland
, the Gulf of Riga
Riga
, and the Bay of Gdańsk . The sea stretches from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 10°E to 30°E longitude . A mediterranean sea of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two bodies, the Baltic Sea
Sea
drains through the Danish islands into the Kattegat
Kattegat
by way of the straits of Øresund , the Great Belt , and the Little Belt
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Black Sea
The BLACK SEA is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
between Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, the Caucasus
Caucasus
, and Western Asia
Western Asia
. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube
Danube
, Dnieper , Rioni , Southern Bug , and Dniester
Dniester
. The Black Sea
Sea
has an area of 436,400 km2 (168,500 sq mi) (not including the Sea
Sea
of Azov ), a maximum depth of 2,212 m (7,257 ft), and a volume of 547,000 km3 (131,000 cu mi). It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains to the east, Crimean Mountains to the north, Strandzha to the southwest, Dobrogea Plateau to the northwest, and features a wide shelf to the northwest
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Grand Duchy Of Lithuania
2. Internationally recognized as part of Moldova
Moldova
. The GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA was a European state from the 13th century until 1795. The state was founded by the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
, one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes
Baltic tribes
from Aukštaitija . The Grand Duchy later expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus\' and other Slavic lands, including territory of present-day Belarus
Belarus
, parts of Ukraine
Ukraine
, Poland
Poland
and Russia
Russia
. At its greatest extent in the 15th century, it was the largest state in Europe. It was a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state with great diversity in languages, religion, and cultural heritage
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Battle Of Grunwald
Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Polish–Lithuanian vassals, allies and mercenaries: Czechs , Bohemia
Bohemia
, Moravia ,
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Appanage
An APPANAGE or APANAGE (pronounced /ˈæpənɪdʒ/ ) or French : APANAGE (French pronunciation: ​ ) is the grant of an estate, title, office, or other thing of value to a younger male child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture . It was common in much of Europe. The system of appanage greatly influenced the territorial construction of France and the German states , and explains why many of the former provinces of France had coats of arms which were modified versions of the king's arms
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Russian Language
RUSSIAN (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia
Russia
, Belarus
Belarus
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularity in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, the Baltics , the Caucasus
Caucasus
, and Central Asia
Central Asia
). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia
Latvia
, Moldova
Moldova
, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states
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Boris Rybakov
BORIS ALEXANDROVICH RYBAKOV (Russian : Бори́с Алекса́ндрович Рыбако́в, 3 June 1908, Moscow
Moscow
— 27 December 2001) was a Soviet and Russian historian who personified the anti-Normanist vision of Russian history. Rybakov held a chair in Russian history at the Moscow
Moscow
University since 1939, was a deputy dean of the university in 1952-54, and administered the Russian History Institute for 40 years. His first groundbreaking monograph was the Handicrafts of Ancient Rus (1948), which sought to demonstrate the economic superiority of Kievan Rus to contemporary Western Europe
Western Europe

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Trade Route From The Varangians To The Greeks
The TRADE ROUTE FROM THE VARANGIANS TO THE GREEKS (Ukrainian : Шлях із варяг у греки, "Shliah iz variag u greki", Russian : Путь из варяг в греки, Put' iz varjag v greki, Swedish : Vägen från varjagerna till grekerna, Greek : Εμπορική Οδός Βαράγγων - Ελλήνων) was a medieval trade route that connected Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, Kievan Rus\' and the Eastern Roman Empire . The route allowed traders along its length to establish a direct prosperous trade with the Empire, and prompted some of them to settle in the territories of present-day Belarus
Belarus
, Russia and Ukraine
Ukraine
. The majority of the route comprised a long-distance waterway , including the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
, several rivers flowing into the Baltic Sea, and rivers of the Dnieper river system , with portages on the drainage divides
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Yaroslav The Wise
YAROSLAV I, GRAND PRINCE OF RUS\', known as YAROSLAV THE WISE or IAROSLAV THE WISE ( Old East Slavic : Ꙗрославъ Володимировичъ Мѫдрꙑи, Jaroslavŭ Volodimirovičŭ Mǫdryi; Old Norse : Jarizleifr Valdamarsson; Russian : Яросла́в Му́дрый, Yaroslav Mudry; Ukrainian : Ярослав Мудрий, Yaroslav Mudriy; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod
Veliky Novgorod
and Kiev
Kiev
, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. Yaroslav's Christian name was George (Yuri ) after Saint George ( Old East Slavic : Гюрьгi, Gjurĭgì). A son of Vladimir the Great , the first Christian Prince of Novgorod, Yaroslav acted as vice-regent of Novgorod
Novgorod
at the time of his father's death in 1015
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Magdeburg Rights
MAGDEBURG RIGHTS (German : Magdeburger Recht; also MAGDEBURG LAW) were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (936–73) and based on the Flemish law, which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages, granted by the local ruler. Named after the German city of Magdeburg
Magdeburg
, these town charters were perhaps the most important set of medieval laws in Central Europe thus far. They became the basis for the German town laws developed during many centuries in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. Even more importantly, adopted and modified by numerous monarchs including the rulers of Bohemia, Hungary, and Poland, the laws were a milestone in urbanization of the entire region and prompted the development of thousands of villages and cities
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First Partition Of Poland
PARTITION may refer to: CONTENTS* 1 Computing * 1.1 Hardware * 1.2 Software * 1.3 Problems * 2 Mathematics * 3 Natural science * 4 Law and politics * 5 Film and TV * 6 Music * 7 Other uses * 8 See also COMPUTINGHARDWARE * Disk partitioning , the division of a hard disk drive * Memory partition , a subdivision of a computer's memory, usually for use by a single jobSOFTWARE * Partition (database) , the division of a database * Logical pa
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Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
Coordinates : 54°N 27°E / 54°N 27°E / 54; 27 Seal of Cheka
Cheka
LithBel The LITHUANIAN–BYELORUSSIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC (LBSSR; Lithuanian : Lietuvos–Baltarusijos Tarybinė Socialistinė Respublika; Belarusian : Літоўска–Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка; Russian : Литовско–Белорусская ССР; Polish : Litewsko–Białoruska Republika Radziecka) or LITBEL (Lit-Bel) was a Soviet socialist republic that existed within the territories of modern Belarus
Belarus
and eastern Lithuania
Lithuania
for approximately five months during 1919
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Nazi Germany
Coordinates : 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here. For the 1923 book, see Das Dritte Reich
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Red Army
The WORKERS\' AND PEASANTS\' RED ARMY (Russian : Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya: RKKA, frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия; KA, in English: RED ARMY also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic , and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics . The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution
October Revolution
(Red October or Bolshevik Revolution)
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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The RUSSIAN SOVIET FEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC (RUSSIAN SFSR or RSFSR; Russian : Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, tr. Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika listen (help ·info )), also known as SOVIET RUSSIA or RUSSIA (/ˈrʌʃə/ ( listen ); Russian : Росси́я, tr. Rossija; IPA: ; from the Greek : Ρωσία — Rus\' ), was a sovereign state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with its own legislation in 1990–91. The Republic comprised sixteen autonomous republics , five autonomous oblasts , ten autonomous okrugs , six krais , and forty oblasts . Russians formed the largest ethnic group
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