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Vira Nirvana Samvat
The Vira Nirvana
Nirvana
Samvat (era) is a calendar era beginning on 15 October 527 BCE. It commemorates the nirvana of Mahavira, the 24th Jain
Jain
Tirthankara
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Diwali
Diwali
Diwali
or Deepavali is the Hindu
Hindu
festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere).[4][5] It is an official holiday in Fiji, Guyana, India,[6] Malaysia, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago
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Dharma (Jainism)
Dharma
Dharma
(/ˈdɑːrmə/;[8] Sanskrit: धर्म, translit. dharma, pronounced [dʱəɾmə] ( listen); Pali: धम्म, translit. dhamma, translit
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Jainism
Jainism
Jainism
(/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/),[1] traditionally known as Jain
Jain
Dharma,[2] is an ancient Indian religion.[3] Followers of Jainism
Jainism
are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life.[4] Jains
Jains
trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra
Mahāvīra
around 500 BCE
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Tattvartha Sutra
Tattvartha Sutra
Sutra
(also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra) is an ancient Jain text
Jain text
written by Acharya Umaswami, sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century AD.[3][4][1] It is one of the first Jain scriptures written in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language instead of the Jain liturgical language of Ardha Magadhi.[5] Tattvartha Sutra
Sutra
is also known in Jainism
Jainism
as the Moksha-shastra (Scripture describing the path of liberation). The Tattvartha Sutra
Sutra
is regarded as one of the earliest, most authoritative books on Jainism, and the only text authoritative in both the Digambara
Digambara
and Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
sects (prior to the Saman Suttam)
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Samantabhadra (Jain Monk)
Samantabhadra was a Digambara
Digambara
acharya (head of the monastic order) who lived about the later part of the second century CE[1][2] He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada. The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived after Umaswami
Umaswami
but before Pujyapada.Contents1 Life 2 Thought 3 Works 4 Praise 5 References 6 SourcesLife[edit] Samantabhadra is said to have lived from 150 CE to 250 CE. He was from southern India during the time of Chola dynasty. He was a poet, logician, eulogist and an accomplished linguist.[3] He is credited with spreading Jainism
Jainism
in southern India.[4] Samantabhadra, in his early stage of asceticism, was attacked with a disease known as bhasmaka (the condition of insatiable hunger).[5] As, digambara monks don't eat more than once in a day, he endured great pain
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Haribhadra
Haribhadra
Haribhadra
Suri was a Svetambara
Svetambara
mendicant Jain leader and author. There are multiple contradictory dates assigned to his birth. According to tradition, he lived c. 459–529 CE. However, in 1919, a Jain monk named Jinavijayi pointed out that given his familiarity with Dharmakirti, a more likely choice would be sometime after 650.[1] In his writings, Haribhadra
Haribhadra
identifies himself as a student of Jinabhadra and Jinadatta of the Vidyadhara Kula. There are several, somewhat contradictory, accounts of his life
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Yashovijaya
Yashovijaya
Yashovijaya
(IAST: Yaśovijaya, 1624–1688), a seventeenth-century Jain philosopher-monk, was a notable Indian philosopher and logician. He was a thinker, prolific writer and commentator who had a strong and lasting influence on Jainism.[1] He was a disciple of Muni Nayavijaya in the lineage of Jain monk Hiravijaya
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Digambara
Digambara
Digambara
(/dɪˈɡʌmbərə/; "sky-clad") is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
(white-clad). The word Digambara
Digambara
(Sanskrit) is a combination of two words: dig (directions) and ambara (sky), referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space. Digambara
Digambara
monks do not wear any clothes. The monks carry picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers (for clearing the place before walking or sitting), kamandalu (a water container made of wood), and shastra (scripture). One of the most important scholar-monks of Digambara tradition was Kundakunda. He authored Prakrit
Prakrit
texts such as the Samayasāra
Samayasāra
and the Pravacanasāra
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Śvētāmbara
The Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
(/ʃwɛˈtʌmbərə/; Sanskrit: श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main branches of Jainism, the other being the Digambara. Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
"white-clad" is a term describing its ascetics' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara
Digambara
"sky-clad" Jainas, whose ascetic practitioners go naked. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity.[1] Śvētāmbaras also believe that women are able to obtain moksha. Śvētāmbaras maintain that the 19th Tirthankara, Māllīnātha, was a woman.Contents1 History 2 Denominations 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] The Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
tradition follows the lineage of Sthulabhadra
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Samayasāra
Samayasāra
Samayasāra
(The Nature of the Self) is a famous Jain text
Jain text
composed by Acharya Kundakunda
Kundakunda
in 439 verses.[1] Its ten chapters discuss the nature of Jīva (pure self/soul), its attachment to Karma and Moksha (liberation)
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Pravachanasara
Pravachanasara, is a text composed by Jain monk, Kundakunda, in about the mid-second century BC. It means "Essence of Scriptures" or "Essence of Sermons" or "Essence of Doctrine". In the text, Kundakunda shows how the correct understanding of the duality of self and others leads to that defining characteristic of Digambara
Digambara
mendicant praxis, nudity.[2] It consists of three chapters and 275 verses. First chapter consists of 92 verses and it describes attributes of Supreme Beings and outlines the first steps in the process of transforming oneself into a Supreme Being. Second chapter consists of 108 verses and it describes laws of interaction between space, time particles, elementary matter particles, compound matter particles, motion and souls in the Cosmos
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Jain Agamas
Agamas are texts of Jainism
Jainism
based on the discourses of the tirthankara. The discourse delivered in a samavasarana (divine preaching hall) is called Śhrut Jnāna and comprises eleven angas and fourteen purvas.[1] The discourse is recorded by Ganadharas (chief disciples), and is composed of twelve angas (departments). It is generally represented by a tree with twelve branches.[2] This forms the basis of the Jaina Agamas or canons. These are believed to have originated from Rishabhanatha, the first tirthankara.[3] The earliest versions of Jain
Jain
Agamas known were composed in Ardhamagadhi Prakrit
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Kalpa Sūtra
The Kalpa Sūtra
Kalpa Sūtra
(Sanskrit: कल्पसूत्र) is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain
Jain
Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
and Mahavira.[1] Traditionally ascribed to Bhadrabahu, which would place it in the 4th century BCE.[2], it was probably put to writing only after 980 or 993 years after the Nirvana(Moksha) of Mahavira.Contents1 History 2 Importance 3 See also 4 References4.1 Citations 4.2 Sources5 External linksHistory[edit] Within the six sections of the Jain
Jain
literary corpus belonging to the Svetambara
Svetambara
school, it is classed as one of the Cheda Sūtras. This Sutra contains detailed life histories and, from the mid-15th century, was frequently illustrated with miniature painting
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Dravyasamgraha
Dravyasaṃgraha (Devnagari: द्रव्यसंग्रह) (Compendium of substances) is a 10th-century Jain text
Jain text
in Jain Sauraseni Prakrit
Prakrit
by Acharya Nemicandra
Nemicandra
belonging to the Digambara Jain
Jain
tradition. It is a composition of 58 gathas (verses) giving an exposition of the six dravyas (substances) that characterize the Jain view of the world: sentient (jīva), non-sentient (pudgala), principle of motion (dharma), principle of rest (adharma), space (ākāśa) and time (kāla).[1] It is one of the most important Jain
Jain
works and has gained widespread popularity
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Kundakunda
Acharya
Acharya
Kundakunda
Kundakunda
is a revered Digambara
Digambara
Jain monk and philosopher. He authored many Jain texts
Jain texts
such as: Samayasara, Niyamasara, Pancastikayasara, Pravachanasara, Atthapahuda and Barasanuvekkha. He occupies the highest place in the tradition of the Digambara
Digambara
Jain acharyas, a position comparable to Christ in Christianity and Muhammad in Islam. All Digambara
Digambara
Jains say his name before starting to read the scripture
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