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Vindolanda
Chesterholm Museum Bardon Mill, Hexham, Northumberland NE47 7JNMilitary bathhouse at VindolandaVindolandaCoordinates 54°59′33″N 2°21′11″W / 54.992571°N 2.353193°W / 54.992571; -2.353193Coordinates: 54°59′33″N 2°21′11″W / 54.992571°N 2.353193°W / 54.992571; -2.353193Grid reference grid reference NY7766Type Roman fortSite informationControlled by Vindolanda
Vindolanda
TrustOpen to the public YesCondition RuinedWebsite http://www.vindolanda.com/Vindolanda[note 1] was a Roman auxiliary fort (castrum) just south of Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
in northern England
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Roman Military Engineering
The military engineering of Ancient Rome's armed forces was of a scale and frequency far beyond that of any of its contemporaries'
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Roman Army
The Roman army
Roman army
(Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395/476 AD), and its successor the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire. It is thus a term that may span approximately 2,206 years (753 BC to 1453 AD), during which the Roman armed forces underwent numerous permutations in composition, organisation, equipment and tactics, while conserving a core of lasting traditions.[1][2][3]Contents1 Historical overview1.1 Early Roman army
Early Roman army
(c. 500 BC to c. 300 BC) 1.2 Roman army of the mid-Republic
Roman army of the mid-Republic
(c
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List Of Roman Army Unit Types
This is a list of Roman army
Roman army
unit types.Accensus – A reservist or light legionary soldier. Acceptarius – A discharged soldier. Actarius – A military or camp clerk. Adiutor – A camp or headquarters adjutant or assistant. Aeneator – Military musician such as a bugler. Agrimensor – A surveyor (a type of immunes). Aquilifer
Aquilifer
– Bearer of the legionary eagle. Alaris – A cavalryman serving in an ala. Architecti
Architecti
– An engineer or artillery constructor. Armicustos – A soldier tasked with the administration and supply of weapons and equipment
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List Of Roman Legions
This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion, primarily focusing on the Principate
Principate
(early Empire, 27 BC – 284 AD) legions, for which there exists substantial literary, epigraphic and archaeological evidence. Main article: Roman army Main article: Imperial Roman army Main article: Roman legion When Augustus
Augustus
became sole ruler in 31 BC, he disbanded about half of the over 50 legions then in existence. The remaining 28 legions became the core of the early Imperial army of the Principate
Principate
(27 BC – 284 AD), most lasting over three centuries
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List Of Roman Generals
Roman generals were often career statesmen, remembered by history for reasons other than their service in the Roman Army
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Roman Navy
The Roman navy
Roman navy
(Latin: Classis, lit. "fleet") comprised the naval forces of the Ancient Roman state. The navy was instrumental in the Roman conquest of the Mediterranean basin, but it never enjoyed the prestige of the Roman legions. Throughout their history, the Romans remained a primarily land-based people and relied partially on their more nautically inclined subjects, such as the Greeks
Greeks
and the Egyptians, to build their ships. Because of that, the navy was never completely embraced by the Roman state, and deemed somewhat "un-Roman".[1] In Antiquity, navies and trading fleets did not have the logistical autonomy that modern ships and fleets possess
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Campaign History Of The Roman Military
From its origin as a city-state on the peninsula of Italy
Italy
in the 8th century BC, to its rise as an empire covering much of Southern Europe, Western Europe, Near East
Near East
and North Africa
North Africa
to its fall in the 5th century AD, the political history of Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
was closely entwined with its military history. The core of the campaign history of the Roman military
Roman military
is an aggregate of different accounts of the Roman military's land battles, from its initial defense against and subsequent conquest of the city's hilltop neighbors on the Italian peninsula, to the ultimate struggle of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
for its existence against invading Huns, Vandals
Vandals
and Germanic tribes. These accounts were written by various authors throughout and after the history of the Empire
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List Of Roman Wars And Battles
The following is a List of Roman wars and battles
List of Roman wars and battles
[1] fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
an
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Roman Military Decorations And Punishments
As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for military transgressions.Contents1 Decorations, awards and victory titles1.1 Crowns 1.2 Imperial titles1.2.1 Synonyms for "Emperor" 1.2.2 Victory titles1.3 Decorations (medal equivalents) 1.4 Financial awards 1.5 Service awards 1.6 Imperial parades2 Punishments2.1 Punishments for crimes 2.2 Punishments for unmanly acts3 See also 4 NotesDecorations, awards and victory titles[edit] Crowns[edit] Grass crown
Grass crown
- (Latin: corona obsidionalis or corona graminea), was the highest and rarest of all military decorations. It was presented only to a general, commander, or officer whose actions saved the legion or the entire army. Civic crown
Civic crown
- (Latin: corona civica), was a chaplet of common oak leaves woven to form a crown
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Technological History Of The Roman Military
The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome
Rome
from the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The rise of Hellenism and the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
are generally seen as signalling the end of the Iron Age
Iron Age
in the Mediterranean. Roman iron-working was enhanced by a process known as carburization. The Romans used the better properties in their armaments, and the 1,300 years of Roman military technology saw radical changes. The Roman armies of the early empire were much better equipped than early republican armies. Metals used for arms and armor primarily included iron, bronze, and brass. For construction, the army used wood, earth, and stone
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Roman Siege Engines
Roman siege engines
Roman siege engines
were, for the most part, adapted from Hellenistic siege technology. Relatively small efforts were made to develop the technology; however, the Romans brought an unrelentingly aggressive style to siege warfare[1] that brought them repeated success. Up to the 1st century BC the Romans utilized siege weapons only as required and relied for the most part on ladders, towers and rams to assault a fortified town. Ballistae were also employed, but held no permanent place within a legion's roster, until later in the Republic, and were used sparingly
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Fall Of The Western Roman Empire
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
(also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities. The Roman Empire lost the strengths that had allowed it to exercise effective control over the West; modern historians mention factors including the effectiveness and numbers of the army, the health and numbers of the Roman population, the strength of the economy, the competence of the Emperors, the internal struggles for power, the religious changes of the period, and the efficiency of the civil administration. Increasing pressure from barbarians outside Roman culture also contributed greatly to the collapse
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List Of Roman Triumphal Arches
This is a list of Roman triumphal arches. All currently surviving Roman arches date from the imperial period (1st century BC onwards). They were preceded by honorific arches set up under the Roman Republic, none of which survive. Triumphal arches were constructed across the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and remain one of the most iconic examples of Roman architecture.Contents1 List 2 Destroyed Roman arches 3 See also 4 SourcesList[edit]Image Name Date Modern city Modern country Ancient nameArch of Caracalla 216 216 AD Djémila AlgeriaArch of Caracalla 211 211–214 AD TébessaArch of Trajan 150 c. 2nd or 3rd centuries AD Timgad AlgeriaHeidentor (Pagan gate) 354 354–361 AD Petronell-Carnuntum Austria CarnuntumArch of the Sergii !9971 29–27 BC Pula CroatiaArch of Campanus 099 1st century AD Aix-les-Bains France AquaePorte Noire (fr) 171 c
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Roman Roads
Roman roads
Roman roads
(Latin: viae Romanae; singular: Via Romana meaning Roman way) were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and the Roman Empire.[1] They provided efficient means for the overland movement of armies, officials, and civilians, and the inland carriage of official communications and trade goods.[2] Roman roads
Roman roads
were of several kinds, ranging from small local roads to broad, long-distance highways built to connect cities, major towns and military bases. These major roads were often stone-paved and metaled, cambered for drainage, and were flanked by footpaths, bridleways and drainage ditches. They were laid along accurately surveyed courses, and some were cut through hills, or conducted over rivers and ravines on bridgework
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