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Vilna Governorate
Coat of arms Vilna
Vilna
Governorate (light green), 1843–1915, with modern Lithuania outlinedCapital VilnaHistory •  Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1795 •  World War I 1915Today part of  Belarus  Lithuania Vilna
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Uyezd
An uyezd (Russian: уе́зд, IPA: [ʊˈjest]) was an administrative subdivision of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Russian Empire, and the early Russian SFSR, which was in use from the 13th century. For most of Russian history, uyezds were a secondary-level of administrative division. By sense, but not by etymology, uyezd approximately corresponds to the English term county.Contents1 General description 2 Bessarabia 3 Ukraine 4 See also 5 External linksGeneral description[edit] Originally describing groups of several volosts, they formed around the most important cities. Uyezds were ruled by the appointees (namestniks) of knyaz and, starting from the 17th century, by voyevodas. In 1708, an administrative reform was carried out by Peter the Great, dividing Russia into governorates
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Ethnic Poles
1,000,000[1]Other countries   United Kingdom 630,000[11][12]   Argentina 500,000[13]   Belarus 295,000[14]   Russia 273,000[15]   Australia 216,056[16]   Lithuania 212,800[17]   Ukraine 144,130[18]   Ireland 122,585[19]   Norway 120,000[20]   Italy 109,018[21]   Sweden 75,323[22]   Belgium 70,600[15]   Spain 70,606[23]   Austria 69,898[24]   Netherlands 60,000[15]   Latvia 44,783[25]   Denmark 37,876[26]   Kazakhstan 34,057[27]   South Africa 30,000[28]   Czech Republic 20,305[29]   Paraguay 16,748[30]   
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Ethnic Jew
"Who is a Jew?" (Hebrew: מיהו יהודי‎ pronounced [ˈmihu jehuˈdi]) is a basic question about Jewish identity and considerations of Jewish
Jewish
self-identification. The question is based on ideas about Jewish
Jewish
personhood, which have cultural, ethnic, religious, political, genealogical, and personal dimensions. Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
and Conservative Judaism
Judaism
follow the Halakha, deeming a person to be Jewish
Jewish
if their mother is Jewish
Jewish
or they underwent a proper conversion. Reform Judaism
Judaism
and Reconstructionist Judaism
Judaism
accept both matrilineal and patrilineal descent. Karaite Judaism
Judaism
predominantly follows patrilineal descent. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
is also commonly defined through ethnicity
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Ethnic Lithuanians
Lithuanians
Lithuanians
(Lithuanian: lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.[3] Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora, largely found in countries such as the United States, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Russia, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Ireland. Their native language is Lithuanian, one of only two surviving members of the Baltic language
Baltic language
family. According to the census conducted in 2001, 83.45% of the population of Lithuania identified themselves as Lithuanians, 6.74% as Poles, 6.31% as Russians, 1.23% as Belarusians, and 2.27% as members of other ethnic groups
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Belarusians
Belarusians
Belarusians
(Belarusian: беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus
Belarus
and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.Contents1 Location 2 Languages 3 History 4 Cuisine 5 See also 6 References6.1 Bibliography7 External linksLocation[edit] See also: Belarusian diasporaEthnic territory of Belarusians   According to Y. Karskiy (1903)   According to M. Dovnar-Zapol'skiy (1919)   Modern state boundaries Belarusians
Belarusians
are an East Slavic ethnic group who populate the majority of the Belarus
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Council Of Ambassadors
The Conference of Ambassadors
Conference of Ambassadors
of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers was an inter-allied organization of the Entente in the period following the end of World War I. Formed in Paris
Paris
in January 1920[1] it became a successor of the Supreme War Council
Supreme War Council
and was later on de facto incorporated into the League of Nations
League of Nations
as one of its governing bodies. It became less active after the Locarno Treaties
Locarno Treaties
of 1925 and formally ceased to exist in 1931[2] or 1935.[1] The Conference consisted of ambassadors of Great Britain, Italy, and Japan accredited in Paris
Paris
and French minister of foreign affairs
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Polish-Soviet War
Polish victoryPeace of RigaTerritorial changes Poland
Poland
re-takes control of present-day western Ukraine
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German Empire
The German Empire
German Empire
(German: Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),[5][6][7][8] also known as Imperial Germany,[9] was the German nation state[10] that existed from the Unification of Germany
Unification of Germany
in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II
Wilhelm II
in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states joined the North German Confederation. On January 1st, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia
King of Prussia
from the Hohenzollern dynasty.[11] Berlin
Berlin
remained its capital. Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
remained Chancellor, the head of government
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Lithuanian Language
Lithuanian (Lithuanian: lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language
Baltic language
spoken in the Baltic region. It is the language of Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and the official language of Lithuania
Lithuania
as well as one of the official languages of the European Union. There are about 2.9 million[3] native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania
Lithuania
and about 200,000 abroad. As a Baltic language, Lithuanian is closely related to neighboring Latvian and more distantly to Slavic and other Indo-European languages. It is written in a Latin
Latin
alphabet
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Nicholas I Of Russia
Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, tr. Nikolay I Pavlovich; 6 July [O.S. 25 June] 1796 – 2 March [O.S. 18 February] 1855) was the Emperor
Emperor
of Russia from 1825 until 1855. He was also the King of Poland
King of Poland
and Grand Duke of Finland. He is best known as a political conservative whose reign was marked by geographical expansion, repression of dissent, economic stagnation, poor administrative policies, a corrupt bureaucracy, and frequent wars that culminated in Russia's defeat in the Crimean War
Crimean War
of 1853–56. His biographer Nicholas V. Riasanovsky says that Nicholas displayed determination, singleness of purpose, and an iron will, along with a powerful sense of duty and a dedication to very hard work. He saw himself as a soldier—a junior officer totally consumed by spit and polish. A handsome man, he was highly nervous and aggressive
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Alexander I Of Russia
Alexander I (Russian: Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; 23 December [O.S. 12 December] 1777 – 1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1825[a][1]) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825. He was the son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. Alexander was the first Russian King of partitioned Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Finland. He was sometimes called Alexander.[2] He was born in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
to Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Paul Petrovich, later Emperor
Emperor
Paul I, and succeeded to the throne after his father was murdered. He ruled Russia during the chaotic period of the Napoleonic Wars. As prince and emperor, Alexander often used liberal rhetoric, but continued Russia's absolutist policies in practice
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Paul I Of Russia
Paul I (Russian: Па́вел I Петро́вич; Pavel Petrovich) (1 October [O.S. 20 September] 1754 – 23 March [O.S. 11 March] 1801) reigned as Emperor
Emperor
of Russia between 1796 and 1801. Officially, he was the only son of Peter III (reigned January to July 1762) (whom he resembled physically and by character) and of Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
(reigned 1762–96), though Catherine hinted that he was fathered by her lover Sergei Saltykov, who also had Romanov blood, being a descendant of the first Romanov Tsar's sister, Tatiana Feodorovna Romanova.[1] Paul remained overshadowed by his mother for much of his life. His reign lasted five years, ending with his assassination by conspirators
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Upytė
Upytė (Polish: Upita) is a small village in Panevėžys district municipality in northern Lithuania. It is situated some 12 km southwest of Panevėžys on the banks of Vešeta Creek. It is now the capital of an elderate. In 1987 it had 580 residents. In the Lithuanian language, Upytė is a diminutive form of the word upė, which means river. In 2004 Upytė celebrated its 750th anniversary by holding a conference Upytė Land: History and Culture. History[edit] The name Upytė was first mentioned in 1254 in a Livonian chronicle dealing with the divisions of the Upmala region. Upytė had a wooden castle built on an island which later became a hillfort when Lake Vešeta was drained. The castle was an important northern defence post against numerous incursions of the Livonian Order. Between 1353 and 1379 alone, it repelled ten such attacks. The castle was further expanded and fortified in the 15th century, when it served as the seat of the Starost of Upytė
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Partitions Of Poland
The Partitions of Poland[nb 1] were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
that took place towards the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
for 123 years. The partitions were conducted by Habsburg Austria, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Russian Empire, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures and annexations.[1][2][3][4] The First Partition of Poland
Poland
was decided on August 5, 1772. Two decades later, Russian and Prussian troops entered the Commonwealth again and the Second Partition was signed on January 23, 1793. Austria did not participate in the Second Partition
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