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Vilayet Of Bosnia
Flag Bosnia Vilayet
Vilayet
in the 1880s CAPITAL Sarajevo
Sarajevo
HISTORY • Established 1867 • Austro-Hungarian occupation 1878 • Annexation to Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
1908 AREA • 1871 46,000 km2 (17,761 sq mi) POPULATION • 1871 1,232,000 Density 26.8 /km2 (69.4 /sq mi) TODAY PART OF Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Montenegro
Montenegro
Sources for population; area The BOSNIA VILAYET was a first-level administrative division (vilayet ) of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, mostly comprising the territory of the present-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
. It bordered Kosovo Vilayet
Vilayet
to the south
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Habesh Eyalet
Flag The Eyalet of Jeddah-Habesh in 1795 CAPITAL Massawa
Massawa
, Sawakin , Jeddah
Jeddah
HISTORY • Established 1554 • Disestablished 1872 AREA • 1856 503,000 km2 (194,209 sq mi) TODAY PART OF Sudan
Sudan
Eritrea
Eritrea
Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Djibouti
Djibouti
Somalia
Somalia
HABESH EYALET (Ottoman Turkish : ایالت حبش; Eyālet-i Ḥabeş‎), was an Ottoman eyalet . It was also known as the EYALET OF JEDDAH AND HABESH, as Jeddah
Jeddah
was its chief town, and HABESH AND HEJAZ. It extended on the areas of coastal Hejaz
Hejaz
and Northeast Africa that border the Red Sea
Red Sea
basin
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Egypt Eyalet
Flag The Eyalet of Egypt
Egypt
in 1833. CAPITAL Cairo
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Adana Eyalet
The EYALET OF ADANA (Ottoman Turkish : ایالت ادنه; Eyālet-i Adana‎) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, established in 1608, when it was separated from the Eyalet
Eyalet
of Aleppo . Its reported area in the 19th century was 11,409 square miles (29,550 km2). HISTORYThe Ramadanids
Ramadanids
played a key role in 15th-century Ottoman-Mamluk relations, being a buffer state located in the Mamluk al-\'Awasim frontier zone. In 1517, Selim I incorporated the beylik into the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
after his conquest of the Mamluk state . The beys of Ramadanids
Ramadanids
held the administration of the Ottoman sanjak of Adana
Adana
in a hereditary manner until 1608
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Eyalet
EYALETS (Ottoman Turkish : ایالت‎ Turkish pronunciation: , English: State), also known as BEYLERBEYLIKS or PASHALIKS, were a primary administrative division of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. From 1453 to the beginning of the nineteenth century the Ottoman local government was loosely structured. The Empire was at first divided into provinces called eyalets, presided over by a Pasha
Pasha
of three tails (feathers borne on a state officer's ceremonial staff). The Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
was responsible for nominating all the high officers of State, both in the capital and the provinces. Between 1861 and 1866, these Eyalets were abolished, and the territory was divided for administrative purposes into Vilayets
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Éliseé Reclus
JACQUES ÉLISéE RECLUS (French: ; 15 March 1830 – 4 July 1905) was a renowned French geographer , writer and anarchist . He produced his 19-volume masterwork, La Nouvelle Géographie universelle, la terre et les hommes ("Universal Geography"), over a period of nearly 20 years (1875–1894). In 1892 he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Paris Geographical Society for this work, despite having been banished from France
France
because of his political activism. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Personal life * 3 Legacy * 4 Works * 4.1 Books * 4.2 Anthology * 4.3 Articles * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links BIOGRAPHYReclus was born at Sainte-Foy-la-Grande ( Gironde
Gironde
). He was the second son of a Protestant
Protestant
pastor and his wife
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Administrative Divisions Of The Ottoman Empire
The ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE were administrative divisions of the state organisation of the Ottoman Empire . Outside this system were various types of vassal and tributary states . The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was first subdivided into provinces, in the sense of fixed territorial units with governors appointed by the sultan, in the late 14th century. The beylerbey , or governor, of each province was appointed by the central government. Sanjaks were governed by sanjak beys (sancakbeyi), selected from the high military ranks by the central government. Beylerbeyis had authority over all the sancakbeyis in a region. Kaza was a subdivision of sancak and referred to the basic administrative district, governed by a kadi . It is considered extremely difficult to define the number and exact borders of Ottoman provinces and domains, as their borders were changed constantly
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Aidin Eyalet
The EYALET OF AIDIN, also known as EYALET OF SMYRNA or IZMIR (Ottoman Turkish : ایالت آیدین; Eyālet-i Aydın‎) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. After the Janissary corps was abolished in 1826, the administrative divisions of the Empire were changed, and the Eyalet of Anatolia was divided into 4. In 1841, the capital was moved to İzmir , only to be moved back to Aydın in 1843. Three years later, in 1846, the capital was moved to Izmir
Izmir
once again. With the adoption of the vilayet law in 1864, the eyalet was re-created as the Vilayet of Smyrna
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Anatolia Eyalet
The EYALET OF ANATOLIA (Ottoman Turkish : ایالت آناطولی; Eyālet-i Anaṭolı‎) was one of the two core provinces (Rumelia being the other) in the early years of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. It was established in 1393. Consisting of western Anatolia, its capital was Kütahya . Its reported area in the 19th century was 65,804 square miles (170,430 km2). The establishment of the province of Anatolia is held to have been in 1393, when Sultan Bayezid I
Bayezid I
(r. 1389–1402) appointed Kara Timurtash as beylerbey and viceroy was in Anatolia, during Bayezid's absence on campaign in Europe against Mircea I of Wallachia
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Karaman Eyalet
KARAMAN EYALET (Ottoman Turkish : ایالت قره‌مان; Eyālet-i Ḳaraman‎) was one of the subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire . Its reported area in the 19th century was 30,463 square miles (78,900 km2). In 1468, the formerly independent principality of Karaman was annexed by the Ottomans; Mehmed II
Mehmed II
appointed his son Mustafa as governor of the new eyalet, with his seat at Konya
Konya

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Kars Eyalet
The EYALET OF KARS (Ottoman Turkish : ایالت قارص; Eyālet-i Ḳarṣ‎) was an eyalet (province) of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. Its reported area in the 19th century was 6,212 square miles (16,090 km2). The town of Kars
Kars
, which had been levelled to the ground by the Timur in 1368, was rebuilt as an Ottoman fortress in 1579 (1580 according to other sources) by Lala Mustafa Pasha
Lala Mustafa Pasha
, and became capital of an eyalet of six sanjaks and also a place of pilgrimage. It was conquered by Shah Abbas in 1604 and rebuilt by the Turks in 1616. The size of the Kars
Kars
garrison in 1640s was 1,002 Janissaries and 301 local recruits. Total 1,303 garrison
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