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Vertically Integrated Liquid
Vertically integrated liquid
Vertically integrated liquid
(VIL) is an estimate of the total mass of precipitation in the clouds. The measurement is obtained by observing the reflectivity of the air which is obtained with weather radar.[1]Contents1 Definition 2 Usage2.1 Multicells 2.2 Wet microbursts3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinition[edit] Reflectivity
Reflectivity
(Z) in dBZ represents the intensity of radar echoes returning from a clouds. According to the wavelengths used in weather radars, only precipitation can be noted (drizzle, rain, snow, hail), not the cloud droplets nor water vapor, so Z is proportional to the rain rate
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Precipitation (meteorology)
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.[2] The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, rain, sleet, snow, graupel and hail. Precipitation
Precipitation
occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates". Thus, fog and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation
Precipitation
forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud
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Kilometre
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; /ˈkɪləmiːtər/ or /kɪˈlɒmɪtər/) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix
SI prefix
for 7003100000000000000♠1000)
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely
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Bibcode
The bibcode (also known as the refcode) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references.Contents1 Adoption 2 Format 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesAdoption[edit] The Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD
SIMBAD
and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
(NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System
Astrophysics Data System
who coined and prefer the term "bibcode".[1][2]Format[edit] The code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the formYYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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American Meteorological Society
The American Meteorological Society
American Meteorological Society
(AMS) is the premier scientific and professional organization in the United States promoting and disseminating information about the atmospheric, oceanic, and hydrologic sciences. Its mission is to advance the atmospheric and related sciences, technologies, applications, and services for the benefit of society.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Certification programs 3 Awards 4 Publications 5 Policy Program 6 Statements 7 Meetings and events 8 Education Program 9 Membership9.1 Presidents10 See also 11 References 12 External linksBackground[edit] Founded in 1919 by Charles Franklin Brooks, the American Meteorological Society has a membership of more than 13,000 weather, water, and climate scientists, professionals, researchers, educators, students, and enthusiasts.[citation needed] AMS offers numerous programs and services in the sphere of water, weather and climate sciences
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Convective Storm Detection
Convective storm detection
Convective storm detection
is the meteorological observation of deep, moist convection (DMC) and consists of detection, monitoring, and short-term prediction. Convective storms can produce tornadoes as well as large hail, strong winds, and heavy rain leading to flash flooding. The detection of convective storms relies on direct eyewitness observations, for example from storm spotters; and on remote sensing, especially weather radar. Some in situ measurements are used for direct detection as well, notably, wind speed reports from surface observation stations
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National Weather Service
The National Weather Service
National Weather Service
(NWS) is an agency of the United States Federal Government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information. It is a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) branch of the Department of Commerce, and is headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland, near Washington, D.C..[5][6] The agency was known as the United States Weather Bureau from 1890 until it adopted its current name in 1970.[7] The NWS performs its primary task through a collection of national and regional centers, and 122 local Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs)
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Enhanced Fujita Scale
The Enhanced Fujita scale
Fujita scale
(EF-Scale) rates the intensity of tornadoes in the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
based on the damage they cause. Implemented in place of the Fujita scale
Fujita scale
introduced in 1971 by Tetsuya Theodore Fujita, it began operational use in the United States
United States
on February 1, 2007, followed by Canada
Canada
on April 1, 2013.[1][2][3] The scale has the same basic design as the original Fujita scale—six categories from zero to five, representing increasing degrees of damage. It was revised to reflect better examinations of tornado damage surveys, so as to align wind speeds more closely with associated storm damage
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Mile
The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, and standardised as exactly 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959. With qualifiers, "mile" is also used to describe or translate a wide range of units derived from or roughly equivalent to the Roman mile, such as the nautical mile (now 1.852 km exactly), the Italian mile (roughly 1.852 km), and the Chinese mile (now 500 m exactly). The Romans divided their mile into 5,000 feet but the greater importance of furlongs in pre-modern England meant that the statute mile was made equivalent to 8 furlongs or 5,280 feet in 1593. This form of the mile then spread to the British-colonized nations who continue to employ the mile. The US Geological Survey now employs the metre for official purposes but legacy data from its 1927 geodetic datum has meant that a separate US survey mile (6336/3937 km) continues to see some use
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Reflectivity
Reflectance
Reflectance
of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy. It is the fraction of incident electromagnetic power that is reflected at an interface
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Kilometres Per Hour
The kilometre per hour (American English: kilometer per hour) is a unit of speed, expressing the number of kilometres travelled in one hour. The SI unit
SI unit
symbol is km/h. Worldwide, it is the most commonly used unit of speed on road signs and car speedometers.[2][3]Contents1 History 2 Notation history2.1 Abbreviations 2.2 Unit symbols 2.3 Alternative abbreviations in official use3 Regulatory use 4 Conversions 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesHistory[edit] Although the metre was formally defined in 1799, the term "kilometres per hour" did not come into immediate use – the myriametre (10,000 metres) and myriametre per hour were preferred to kilometres and kilometres per hour
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Knot (unit)
The knot (/nɒt/) is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h (approximately 1.15078 mph).[1] The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn.[2] The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE); kt is also common
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Miles Per Hour
Miles per hour
Miles per hour
(abbreviated mph, MPH or mi/h) is an imperial and United States customary unit of speed expressing the number of statute miles covered in one hour
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Supercell
A supercell is a thunderstorm characterized by the presence of a mesocyclone: a deep, persistently rotating updraft.[1] For this reason, these storms are sometimes referred to as rotating thunderstorms.[2] Of the four classifications of thunderstorms (supercell, squall line, multi-cell, and single-cell), supercells are the overall least common and have the potential to be the most severe. Supercells are often isolated from other thunderstorms, and can dominate the local weather up to 32 kilometres (20 mi) away. They tend to last 2-4 hours. Supercells are often put into three classification types: Classic, Low-precipitation (LP), and High-precipitation (HP). LP supercells are usually found in climates that are more arid, such as the high plains of the United States, and HP supercells are most often found in moist climates
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