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Verticalization
In urbanism, verticalization is the rapid increase of inner city apartment high-rise buildings, resulting in the development of "vertical" city parts and urban densification.[1] Although both verticalization and densification processes in cities can provide several advantages, such modifications in the urban landscape were implemented extremely fast, especially after the Second World War.[2] In order to increase densities, urban housing policies encouraged new forms of vertical building.[3] The process of verticalization is also related to consumer culture and symbols of power.[4] References[edit]^ Thung, Tanja Michaela (2009). Vertikalisierung im brasilianischen Wohnungsbau : Analyse von innerstädtischen Hochhaus-Quartieren in Goiânia. Dissertation. ^ Krüger, Eduardo; Suga, Mauro (2009). Recommendations of Height Restrictions for Urban Canyons in Curitiba, Brazil. ^ Burgess, Rod (1992). Latin America urban housing Policies in the modernization period. In: Carmona, Marisa
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Structuralism (architecture)
Structuralism
Structuralism
is a movement in architecture and urban planning evolved around the middle of the 20th century. It was a reaction to CIAM-Functionalism (Rationalism) [1] which had led to a lifeless expression of urban planning that ignored the identity of the inhabitants and urban forms. Structuralism
Structuralism
in a general sense is a mode of thought of the 20th century, which came about in different places, at different times and in different fields. It can also be found in linguistics, anthropology, philosophy and art
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Dark-sky Movement
The dark-sky movement is a campaign to reduce light pollution. The advantages of reducing light pollution include an increased number of stars visible at night, reducing the effects of electric lighting on the environment, improving the well-being,[1] health[2] and safety[3] of both people and wildlife,[4] and cutting down on energy usage. Earth Hour
Earth Hour
and National Dark-Sky Week
National Dark-Sky Week
are two examples of such efforts. The movement started with professional and amateur astronomers alarmed that nocturnal skyglow from urban areas was blotting out the sight of stars
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Transportation Forecasting
Transportation forecasting is the attempt of estimating the number of vehicles or people that will use a specific transportation facility in the future. For instance, a forecast may estimate the number of vehicles on a planned road or bridge, the ridership on a railway line, the number of passengers visiting an airport, or the number of ships calling on a seaport. Traffic forecasting begins with the collection of data on current traffic. This traffic data is combined with other known data, such as population, employment, trip rates, travel costs, etc., to develop a traffic demand model for the current situation. Feeding it with predicted data for population, employment, etc. results in estimates of future traffic, typically estimated for each segment of the transportation infrastructure in question, e.g., for each roadway segment or railway station
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Trip Distribution
Trip distribution (or destination choice or zonal interchange analysis) is the second component (after trip generation, but before mode choice and route assignment) in the traditional four-step transportation forecasting model. This step matches tripmakers’ origins and destinations to develop a “trip table”, a matrix that displays the number of trips going from each origin to each destination. Historically, this component has been the least developed component of the transportation planning model.Table: Illustrative trip tableOrigin Destination 1 2 3 Z1 T11 T12 T13 T1Z2 T213 T31Z TZ1TZZWhere: T ij = trips from origin i to destination j. Note that the practical value of trips on the diagonal, e.g. from zone 1 to zone 1, is zero since no intra-zonal trip occurs. Work trip distribution is the way that travel demand models understand how people take jobs
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Professional Transportation Planner
A professional transportation planner is a professional engaged in the practice of transportation planning, relating to the transportation aspects of urban planning and infrastructure planning.Contents1 Professional Certification in the United States1.1 Certification by the American Planning Association 1.2 Certification by the Transportation Professional Certification Board2 Professional Certification in the United Kingdom 3 Professional Certification in Canada 4 References 5 See alsoProfessional Certification in the United States[edit] In the United States, a professional transportation planner is certified in one of two ways: as a Certified Transportation Planner by the American Institute of Certified Planners, the professional institute of the American Planning Association, or as a Professional Transportation Planner by the Transportation Professional Certification Board, an autonomous body affiliated with the Institute of Transportation Engineers
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Urban Freight Distribution
Urban freight distribution is the system and process by which goods are collected, transported, and distributed within urban environments. The urban freight system can include seaports, airports, manufacturing facilities, and warehouse/distribution centers that are connected by a network of railroads, rail yards, pipelines, highways, and roadways that enable goods to get to their destinations. Urban freight distribution is essential to supporting international and domestic trade as well as the daily needs of local businesses and consumers. In addition, it provides thousands of jobs and other economic benefits. However, a number of challenges are associated with urban freight, such as road congestion, environmental impacts, and land use conflicts due to the proximity of freight facilities and vehicles to residential and sensitive land uses
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Economic Development
Economic development
Economic development
is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people. The term has been used frequently by economists, politicians, and others in the 20th and 21st centuries. The concept, however, has been in existence in the West for centuries. "Modernization, "westernization", and especially "industrialization" are other terms often used while discussing economic development. Economic development
Economic development
has a direct relationship with the environment and environmental issues.[further explanation needed] Whereas economic development is a policy intervention endeavor with aims of improving the economic and social well-being of people, economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in GDP
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Community Economic Development
Community economic development (CED) is a field of study that actively elicits community involvement when working with government, and private sectors to build strong communities, industries, and markets.[1] Community economic development encourages using local resources in a way that enhances economic opportunities while improving social conditions in a sustainable way. Often CED initiatives are implemented to overcome crises, and increase opportunities for communities who are disadvantaged. An aspect of “localizing economics,” CED is a community-centered process that blends social and economic development to foster the economic, social, ecological and cultural well-being of communities
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Redevelopment
Redevelopment
Redevelopment
is any new construction on a site that has pre-existing uses.Contents1 Description 2 Urban renewal 3 Golf course redevelopment 4 Notable examples 5 See also 6 ReferencesDescription[edit] Variations on redevelopment include:Urban infill on vacant parcels that have no existing activity but were previously developed, especially on Brownfield land, such as the redevelopment of an industrial site into a mixed-use development. Constructing with a denser land usage, such as the redevelopment of a block of townhouses into a large apartment building. Adaptive reuse, where older st
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Model Village
A model village is a type of mostly self-contained community, built from the late 18th century onwards by landowners and industrialists to house their workers. Although the villages are located close to the workplace, they are generally physically separated from them and often consist of relatively high quality housing, with integrated community amenities and attractive physical environments
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Planned Community
A planned community, or planned city, is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed on previously undeveloped greenfield land. This contrasts with settlements that evolve in a more ad hoc fashion. Land use conflicts are less frequent in these communities. The term new town refers to planned communities of the new towns movement in particular, mainly in the United Kingdom
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Planned Cities
A planned community, or planned city, is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed on previously undeveloped greenfield land. This contrasts with settlements that evolve in a more ad hoc fashion. Land use conflicts are less frequent in these communities. The term new town refers to planned communities of the new towns movement in particular, mainly in the United Kingdom
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Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental assessment (EA) is the assessment of the environmental consequences (positive and negative) of a plan, policy, program, or actual projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action. In this context, the term "environmental impact assessment" (EIA) is usually used when applied to actual projects by individuals or companies and the term "strategic environmental assessment" (SEA) applies to policies, plans and programmes most often proposed by organs of state.[1][2] Environmental assessments may be governed by rules of administrative procedure regarding public participation and documentation of decision making, and may be subject to judicial review. The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the environmental impacts when deciding whether or not to proceed with a project
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Planning And Zoning Commission
A Planning and Zoning
Zoning
Commission is a local elected or appointed government board charged with recommending to the local town or city council the boundaries of the various original zoning district and appropriate regulations to be enforced therein and any proposed amendments thereto and shall collect data and keep itself informed as to the best practices generally in effect in the matter city planning and zoning to the end that it may be qualified to act on measures affecting the present and future movement of traffic, the segregation of residential and business districts and the convenience and safety of persons and property in any way dependent on city planning and zoning. The chairman of the Planning and Zoning
Zoning
Commission (or a staff member) is responsible for publishing public hearing in the newspaper about certain matters that come before the commission
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Settlement Movement
The settlement movement was a reformist social movement, what beginning in the 1880s and peaking around the 1920s in England and the US, with a goal of getting the rich and poor in society to live more closely together in an interdependent community. Its main object was the establishment of "settlement houses" in poor urban areas, in which volunteer middle-class "settlement workers" would live, hoping to share knowledge and culture with, and alleviate the poverty of, their low-income neighbors. The "settlement houses" provided services such as daycare, education, and healthcare to improve the lives of the poor in these areas.[1]Contents1 History1.1 England 1.2 United States 1.3 Russia2 Description 3 Legacy and impact 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory[edit] England[edit] The movement started in London in 1884 with the founding of Toynbee Hall
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