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Vermilion Bird
The VERMILION BIRD is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations . According to Wu Xing
Wu Xing
, the Taoist five-elemental system, it represents the fire -element, the direction south , and the season summer correspondingly. Thus it is sometimes called the VERMILION BIRD OF THE SOUTH (南方朱雀, Nán Fāng Zhū Què). It is known as ZHū QUè in Chinese, SUZAKU in Japanese, JUJAK in Korean and CHU TướC in Vietnamese. It is described as a red bird that resembles a pheasant with a five-colored plumage and is perpetually covered in flames. Represented by Jonangu Shrine in the southern part of Kyoto. It is often mistaken for the Fenghuang
Fenghuang
due to similarities in appearance, but the two are different creatures
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Moon
The MOON is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth
Earth
, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite . It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System
Solar System
, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary ). Following Jupiter
Jupiter
's satellite Io , the Moon
Moon
is the second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known. The Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth
Earth
. The most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon
Moon
formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth
Earth
and a Mars
Mars
-sized body called Theia
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Pinyin
HANYU PINYIN ROMANIZATION (simplified Chinese : 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese : 漢語拼音; literally: "Han Chinese spelling of sounds"), often abbreviated to PINYIN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan
Taiwan
. It is often used to teach Standard (Mandarin) Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters
Chinese characters
. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Mu Geminorum
MU GEMINORUM (μ Gem, μ Geminorum), also named TEJAT, is a star in the northern constellation of Gemini . CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature * 2 Properties * 3 References * 4 External links NOMENCLATUREμ Geminorum (Latinised to Mu Geminorum) is the system's Bayer designation . It bore the traditional name Tejat, or Tejat Posterior, which means back foot, because it is the foot of Castor , one of the Gemini twins. The proper name Tejat Posterior was formerly applied to an asterism consisting of this star, along with γ Gem (Alhena), ν Gem , η Gem (Tejat Prior), and ξ Gem (Alzirr). The names Calx (Latin , meaning heel), Pish Pai (from the Persian Pīshpāy, پیش‌پای, meaning foreleg), and Nuhatai (from Arabic Al Nuḥātai, the dual form of Al Nuḥāt, "a Camel's Hump") have also been applied to Mu Geminorum
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South
SOUTH is one of the four cardinal directions or compass points . South is the polar opposite of north and is perpendicular to east and west . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Navigation * 3 South Pole * 4 Geography * 5 Other uses * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word south comes from Old English sūþ, from earlier Proto-Germanic *sunþaz ("south"), possibly related to the same Proto-Indo-European root that the word sun derived from. NAVIGATIONBy convention , the bottom side of a map is south, although reversed maps exist that defy this convention. To go south using a compass for navigation , set a bearing or azimuth of 180°. Alternatively, in the Northern Hemisphere outside the tropics , the Sun will be roughly in the south at midday
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Kunrei-shiki Romanization
KUNREI-SHIKI RōMAJI (訓令式ローマ字) is a Cabinet -ordered romanization system to transcribe the Japanese language
Japanese language
into the Latin alphabet . It is abbreviated as Kunrei-shiki. Its name is rendered Kunreisiki using Kunrei-shiki itself. Kunrei-shiki is sometimes known as the MONBUSHō SYSTEM in English because it is taught in the Monbushō-approved elementary school curriculum. The ISO has standardized Kunrei-shiki, under ISO 3602. Kunrei-shiki is based on the older Nihon-shiki (Nipponsiki) system, which was modified for modern standard Japanese. For example, the word かなづかい, romanized kanadukai in Nihon-shiki, is pronounced kanazukai in standard modern Japanese
Japanese
and is romanized as such in Kunrei-shiki
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Wu Xing
The WU XING (Chinese : 五行; pinyin : Wǔ Xíng), also known as the FIVE ELEMENTS, FIVE PHASES, the FIVE AGENTS, the FIVE MOVEMENTS, FIVE PROCESSES, the FIVE STEPS/STAGES and the FIVE PLANETS is the short form of "Wǔ zhǒng liúxíng zhī qì" (五種流行之氣) or "the five types of chi dominating at different times". It is a fivefold conceptual scheme that many traditional Chinese fields used to explain a wide array of phenomena, from cosmic cycles to the interaction between internal organs , and from the succession of political regimes to the properties of medicinal drugs . The "Five Phases" are Wood (木 mù), Fire (火 huǒ), Earth (土 tǔ), Metal (金 jīn), and Water (水 shuǐ). This order of presentation is known as the "mutual generation" (相生 xiāngshēng) sequence. In the order of "mutual overcoming" (相剋/相克 xiāngkè), they are Wood, Earth, Water, Fire, and Metal
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Taoism
TAOISM (/ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ ), also known as DAOISM, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao
Tao
(道, literally "Way", also romanized as Dao ). The Tao
Tao
is a fundamental idea in most Chinese philosophical schools; in Taoism, however, it denotes the principle that is the source, pattern and substance of everything that exists. Taoism
Taoism
differs from Confucianism
Confucianism
by not emphasizing rigid rituals and social order. Taoist ethics vary depending on the particular school, but in general tend to emphasize wu wei (effortless action), "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three Treasures : 慈 "compassion", 儉 "frugality", and 不敢為天下先 "humility". The roots of Taoism
Taoism
go back at least to the 4th century BCE
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Theta Cancri
THETA CANCRI, Latinized from θ Cancri, is a multiple star system in the zodiac constellation of Cancer , 410 light years from Earth . The primary, component A, is classified as an orange K-type giant with an apparent magnitude of +5.32. Since it is near the ecliptic , it can be occulted by the Moon and, very rarely, by planets . REFERENCES * ^ A B C D E van Leeuwen, F. (2007), "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 474 (2): 653–664, arXiv :0708.1752  , Bibcode :2007A&A...474..653V, doi :10.1051/0004-6361:20078357 . * ^ A B C D Gutierrez-Moreno, Adelina; et al. (1966), A System of photometric standards, 1, Publicaciones Universidad de Chile, Department de Astronomy, pp. 1–17, Bibcode :1966PDAUC...1....1G. * ^ A B Eggleton, P. P.; Tokovinin, A. A
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Delta Hydrae
DELTA HYDRAE, Latinized from δ Hydrae, is a double star in the equatorial constellation of Hydra . It is visible to the naked eye with an apparent visual magnitude of 4.146. Based upon an annual parallax shift of 20.34 mas , it is located about 160 light years from the Sun . This is a double star with an angular separation of 7000260000000000000♠2.6±0.1 arc second along a position angle of 7000462686784703697♠265.1°±1.0°, as of 2003. The brighter component is an A-type main sequence star with a stellar classification of A1 Vnn. It is spinning rapidly with a projected rotational velocity of 285 km/s. This is giving the star an oblate shape with an equatorial bulge that is 20% larger than the polar radius. It has an estimated 2.88 times the mass of the Sun and 2.7 times the Sun\'s radius . The star is about 244 million years old and it radiates 42.7 times the solar luminosity from its outer atmosphere at an effective temperature of 11,055 K
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Han Dynasty
Coordinates : 34°09′21″N 108°56′47″E / 34.15583°N 108.94639°E / 34.15583; 108.94639 Han dynasty 漢朝 206 BC – 220 AD A map of the Western Han Dynasty in 2 AD: 1) the territory shaded in dark blue represents the principalities and centrally-administered commanderies of the Han Empire; 2) the light blue area shows the extent of the Tarim Basin protectorate of the Western Regions
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HD 74395
F HYDRAE, also known as HD 74395, is a star in the constellation Hydra with an apparent magnitude is 4.64. It was catalogued as 31 Monocerotis, but this name is now rarely used since the star is now within the boundaries of Hydra. It is a low mass yellow supergiant around a thousand times brighter than the sun and five times as massive. F Hya is a catalogued as a triple star , with 8th magnitude BD-06°2707 80" away and 13th magnitude companion at 57". REFERENCES * ^ A B C D E Van Leeuwen, F. (2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653. Bibcode :2007A&A...474..653V. arXiv :0708.1752  . doi :10.1051/0004-6361:20078357 . * ^ A B Luck, R. Earle (2014). "Parameters and Abundances in Luminous Stars". The Astronomical Journal. 147 (6): 137. Bibcode :2014AJ....147..137L. doi :10.1088/0004-6256/147/6/137 . * ^ A B C D E Lyubimkov, Leonid S.; Lambert, David L.; Korotin, Sergey A.; Rachkovskaya, Tamara M.; Poklad, Dmitry B
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Sigma Hydrae
SIGMA HYDRAE (σ HYDRAE, abbreviated SIG HYA, σ HYA), also named MINCHIR, is a solitary star in the equatorial constellation of Hydra . It is visible to the naked eye with an apparent visual magnitude of 4.48. The estimated distance to this star from the Sun , based upon an annual parallax shift of 8.75 mas , is around 370 light-years . At that distance, the visual magnitude of the star is diminished by an interstellar extinction factor of 0.16, due to intervening dust. NOMENCLATUREσ Hydrae (Latinised to Sigma Hydrae) is the system's Bayer designation . It bore the traditional name Minchir, appearing as Minchir es-schudscha' on Bode 's large star atlas , Uranographia, which is derived from the Arabic Minkhir al-Shuja‘, "the Nostril of Hydra ", for this star. The name is erroneously spelt as Al Minliar al Shuja in the Yale Bright Star Catalogue . . In 2016, the IAU organized a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN) to catalog and standardize proper names for stars
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Gamma Corvi
GAMMA CORVI (γ CORVI, abbreviated GAMMA CRV, γ CRV) is a binary star and the brightest star in the southern constellation of Corvus , having an apparent visual magnitude of 2.59. The system's two components are designated GAMMA CORVI A (also named GIENAH ) and GAMMA CORVI B. The distance to this system has been measured directly using the parallax technique, yielding an estimated 154 light-years (47 parsecs ) from the Sun
Sun
. NOMENCLATUREγ Corvi (Latinised to Gamma Corvi) is the system's Bayer designation . The designation of the components – Gamma Corvi
Gamma Corvi
A and B – derives from the convention used by the Washington Multiplicity Catalog (WMC) for multiple star systems , and adopted by the International Astronomical Union
International Astronomical Union
(IAU)
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Alpha Crateris
ALPHA CRATERIS (α CRATERIS, abbreviated ALPHA CRT, α CRT), also named ALKES, is a star in the constellation of Crater . CONTENTS* 1 Nomenclature * 1.1 Namesake * 2 Properties * 3 References NOMENCLATUREα Crateris (Latinised to Alpha Crateris) is the star's Bayer designation . It bore the traditional name Alkes, from the Arabic
Arabic
الكاس alkās or الكأس alka's "the cup". In the catalogue of stars in the Calendarium of Al Achsasi al Mouakket , this star was designated Aoul al Batjna (أول ألبجن awwil albajna), which was translated into Latin
Latin
as Prima Crateris, meaning "the first cup". In 2016, the International Astronomical Union
International Astronomical Union
organized a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN) to catalogue and standardize proper names for stars
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