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Venona Project
The Venona project
Venona project
was a counterintelligence program initiated by the United States Army's Signal Intelligence Service
Signal Intelligence Service
(later the National Security Agency) that ran for nearly four decades, spanning 1943 to 1980.[1] The purpose of the Venona project
Venona project
was the decryption of messages transmitted by the intelligence agencies of the Soviet Union, e.g
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Venonae
High Cross is the name given to the crossroads of the Roman roads of Watling Street
Watling Street
and Fosse Way
Fosse Way
in Leicestershire, England
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Frank W. Lewis
Frank Waring Lewis (August 25, 1912 – November 18, 2010) was an American cryptographer and cryptic crossword compiler.[1] His puzzles were printed in The Nation
The Nation
for over 60 years, for a total of 2,962 puzzles.[1] Leonard Bernstein, Kurt Vonnegut, and Katha Pollitt
Katha Pollitt
were listed among the fans of his puzzles.[2]Contents1 Personal life and career 2 Puzzles 3 Works 4 References 5 External linksPersonal life and career[edit] Lewis was born on August 25, 1912, in Salt Lake City, Utah.[1] His father was from England.[1] Lewis attended secretarial school and the University of Utah, from which he later earned a degree in absentia.[1] He passed the federal civil service test, and earned a master's degree in music from The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C.[1] In Washington, Lewis worked at government secretarial jobs.[1] Just before World War II, Lewis was approached by Col. William F
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Joseph Stalin
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin[note 1] (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian ethnicity. Governing the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953, he served as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1952 and as Premier of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1941 to 1953. Initially heading a collective one-party state government, by 1937 he was the country's de facto dictator. Ideologically a Marxist and a Leninist, Stalin helped to formalise these ideas as Marxism– Leninism
Leninism
while his own policies became known as Stalinism. Raised into a poor family in Gori, Russian Empire, as a youth Stalin joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
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Third Reich
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here
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Arlington Hall
Arlington Hall
Arlington Hall
(also called Arlington Hall
Arlington Hall
Station) is a historic building in Arlington, Virginia, originally a girls' school and later the headquarters of the United States Army's Signal Intelligence Service (SIS) cryptography effort during World War II. The site presently houses the George P. Shultz National Foreign Affairs Training Center, and the Army National Guard's Herbert R. Temple, Jr. Readiness Center. It is located on Arlington Boulevard
Arlington Boulevard
(U.S. Route 50) between S. Glebe Road (State Route 120) and S. George Mason Drive.Contents1 History 2 Current uses 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksHistory[edit]U.S
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Encrypted
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot. Encryption
Encryption
does not itself prevent interference, but denies the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor. In an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm – a cipher – generating ciphertext that can be read only if decrypted. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually uses a pseudo-random encryption key generated by an algorithm. It is in principle possible to decrypt the message without possessing the key, but, for a well-designed encryption scheme, considerable computational resources and skills are required
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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One-time Pad
In cryptography, the one-time pad (OTP) is an encryption technique that cannot be cracked, but requires the use of a one-time pre-shared key the same size as, or longer than, the message being sent. In this technique, a plaintext is paired with a random secret key (also referred to as a one-time pad). Then, each bit or character of the plaintext is encrypted by combining it with the corresponding bit or character from the pad using modular addition. If the key is truly random, is at least as long as the plaintext, is never reused in whole or in part, and is kept completely secret, then the resulting ciphertext will be impossible to decrypt or break.[1][2][3] It has also been proven that any cipher with the perfect secrecy property must use keys with effectively the same requirements as OTP keys.[4] However, practical problems have prevented one-time pads from being widely used. First described by Frank Miller in 1882,[5][6] the one-time pad was re-invented in 1917
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Genevieve Feinstein
Genevieve Grotjan Feinstein (1912–2006) was an American mathematician and cryptanalyst. She worked for the Signals Intelligence Service throughout World War II, during which time she played an important role in deciphering the Japanese cryptography machine Purple, and later worked on the Cold War-era Venona project.Contents1 Career 2 Personal life 3 Legacy 4 ReferencesCareer[edit] Feinstein discovered a passion for mathematics at a young age and aspired to become a math teacher until the beginning of World War II, when U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt made it possible for women to fulfill non-combat roles in the military. She passed the necessary tests to become a government mathematician in 1939, and was hired by William F. Friedman to work as a cryptanalyst for the Army's Signals Intelligence Service (SIS)
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Code
In communications and informationtter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes [[data compress or secret, for communication through a communication channel or storage in a storage medium. An early example is the invention of language which enabled a perso, through speech, to communicate what he or she saw, heard, felt, or thought to others. But speech limits the range of communication to the distance a voice can carry, and limits the audience to those present when the speech is uttered. The invention of writing, which converted spoken language into visual symbols, extended the range of communication across space and time. The process of encoding converts information from a source into symbols for communication or storage
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Key (cryptography)
In cryptography, a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm. For encryption algorithms, a key specifies the transformation of plaintext into ciphertext, and vice versa for decryption algorithms. Keys also specify transformations in other cryptographic algorithms, such as digital signature schemes and message authentication codes.Contents1 Need for secrecy 2 Key scope 3 Ownership and revocation 4 Key sizes 5 Key choice 6 Key vs password 7 See also 8 ReferencesNeed for secrecy[edit] In designing security systems, it is wise to assume that the details of the cryptographic algorithm are already available to the attacker. This is known as Kerckhoffs' principle — "only secrecy of the key provides security", or, reformulated as Shannon's maxim, "the enemy knows the system"
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Meredith Gardner
Meredith Knox Gardner (October 20, 1912 – August 9, 2002) was an American linguist and codebreaker. Gardner worked in counter-intelligence, decoding Soviet intelligence traffic regarding espionage in the United States, in what came to be known as the Venona project. Early life and career[edit] Gardner was born in Okolona, Mississippi, and grew up in Austin, Texas. After graduating from the University of Texas at Austin, he earned a master's degree in German from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where he was a teaching assistant from 1938 to 1940 or so we think stated by NY Times. He was a linguist and professor of German at the University of Akron when the United States Army's Signals Intelligence Service recruited him to work on breaking German codes
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Counterintelligence
Counterintelligence
Counterintelligence
refers to information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons or international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.[1][2].
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Main Intelligence Directorate
Main Intelligence Directorate
Main Intelligence Directorate
(Russian: Гла́вное разве́дывательное управле́ние, tr. Glavnoye razvedyvatel'noye upravleniye, IPA: [ˈɡlavnəjə rɐzˈvʲɛdɨvətʲɪlʲnəjə ʊprɐˈvlʲenʲɪjə]), abbreviated GRU (Russian: ГРУ, IPA: [ɡeeˈru]), is the foreign military intelligence agency of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (formerly the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
General Staff of the Soviet Union)
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United States Department Of State
The United States
United States
Department of State (DOS),[3] often referred to as the State Department, is the United States
United States
federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.[4] Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, the State Department is responsible for the international relations of the United States, negotiates treaties and agreements with foreign entities, and represents the United States
United States
at the United Nations
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