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Vasily Vereshchagin
VASILY VASILYEVICH VERESHCHAGIN (Russian : Васи́лий Васи́льевич Вереща́гин, October 26, 1842 – April 13, 1904), was one of the most famous Russian war artists and one of the first Russian artists to be widely recognised abroad. The graphic nature of his realist scenes led many of them never to be printed or exhibited . CONTENTS * 1 Years of apprenticeship * 2 Travels in Central Asia * 3 Russo–Turkish War * 4 World fame * 5 Last years * 6 Legacy * 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 Further reading * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 External links YEARS OF APPRENTICESHIPVereshchagin was born at Cherepovets
Cherepovets
, Novgorod Governorate
Novgorod Governorate
, Russia , in 1842 as the middle of three brothers. His father was a landowner of noble birth, while his mother had Tatar origins
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Himalayas
The HIMALAYAS, or HIMALAYA (/ˌhɪməˈleɪə, hɪˈmɑːləjə/ ), form a mountain range in Asia
Asia
separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
. The Himalayan range has many of the Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest
Mount Everest
. The Himalayas
Himalayas
include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 metres (23,600 ft) in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia
Asia
( Aconcagua
Aconcagua
, in the Andes
Andes
) is 6,961 metres (22,838 ft) tall. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate
Eurasian Plate
, the Himalayan mountain range runs, west-northwest to east-southeast, in an arc 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) long
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British Raj
Indian languages GOVERNMENT Colony
Colony
MONARCH OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND EMPEROR/EMPRESS A • 1858–1901 Victoria • 1901–1910 Edward VII
Edward VII
• 1910–1936
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Tibet Under Qing Rule
TIBET UNDER QING RULE refers to the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
's rule over Tibet from 1720 to 1912. During the Qing rule of Tibet, the region was structurally, militarily and administratively controlled by the Qing dynasty established by the Manchus in China
China
. In the history of Tibet , Qing administrative rule was established after a Qing army defeated the Dzungars who occupied Tibet
Tibet
in 1720, and lasted until the fall of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in 1912, although the region retained a degree of political autonomy under the Dalai Lamas . The Qing emperors appointed imperial residents known as the Ambans to Tibet, who commanded over 2,000 troops stationed in Lhasa
Lhasa
and reported to the Lifan Yuan , a Qing government agency that oversaw the empire's frontier regions
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Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)
Russian coalition victory * Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of San Stefano
* Treaty of Berlin Territorial changes * Reestablishment of the Bulgarian state * De jure independence of Romania
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London
LONDON (/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London
London
has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it Londinium . London's ancient core, the City of London
London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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The Crystal Palace
THE CRYSTAL PALACE was a cast-iron and plate-glass structure originally built in Hyde Park, London , to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. More than 14,000 exhibitors from around the world gathered in its 990,000-square-foot (92,000 m2) exhibition space to display examples of technology developed in the Industrial Revolution . Designed by Joseph Paxton , the Great Exhibition building was 1,851 feet (564 m) long, with an interior height of 128 feet (39 m). The invention of the cast plate glass method in 1848 made possible the production of large sheets of cheap but strong glass, and its use in the Crystal Palace created a structure with the greatest area of glass ever seen in a building and astonished visitors with its clear walls and ceilings that did not require interior lights
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Turkestan
TURKESTAN, also spelled TURKISTAN, literally means "Land of the Turks" in Persian . It refers to an area in Central Asia
Central Asia
between Siberia
Siberia
to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to the south, the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to the west and the Gobi Desert
Gobi Desert
to the east. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and terminology * 2 History * 3 Overview * 3.1 Chinese influence * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading ETYMOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGYOf Persian origin (see -stan
-stan
), the term "Turkestan" (ترکستان) has never referred to a single national state . Muslim geographers first used the word to describe the place of Turkic peoples . "Turkestan" was used to describe any place where Turkic peoples lived
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Siege
A SIEGE is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by attrition or assault. This derives from sedere, Latin for "to sit". Siege
Siege
warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conflict characterized by one party holding a strong, static defensive position. Consequently, an opportunity for negotiation between combatants is not uncommon, as proximity and fluctuating advantage can encourage diplomacy. A siege occurs when an attacker encounters a city or fortress that cannot be easily taken by direct assault and refuses to surrender . Sieges involve surrounding the target and blocking the reinforcement or escape of troops or provision of supplies (a tactic known as "investment " ), typically coupled with attempts to reduce the fortifications by means of siege engines , artillery bombardment, mining (also known as sapping), or the use of deception or treachery to bypass defences
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Cross Of St George
The CROSS OF SAINT GEORGE (Russian : Георгиевский Крест) is a state decoration of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
. It was initially established by Imperial Russia
Russia
where it was officially known as the DECORATION OF THE MILITARY ORDER OF SAINT GEORGE between 1807 and 1913. The Cross of Saint George
Saint George
was reinstated into the Russian awards system in 1992. CONTENTS * 1 History 1807–1917 * 2 1992 reinstatement * 3 Award description * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY 1807–1917Established in the February 1807 decree of Emperor Alexander I , it was intended as a reward for "undaunted courage" by the lower ranks (soldiers, sailors and NCOs ) of the military. Article four of the decree ordered the decoration to hang from the same ribbon as the Order of Saint George
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Munich
MUNICH (/ˈmjuːnɪk/ ; German: München, pronounced ( listen ), Austro-Bavarian : Minga , Czech : Mnichov) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria
Bavaria
, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps
Alps
. Munich
Munich
is also the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin
Berlin
and Hamburg
Hamburg
, and the 12th largest city in the European Union, with a population of around 1.5 million. The Munich Metropolitan Region
Munich Metropolitan Region
is home to 6 million people
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Battle Of Shipka Pass
5,000 (1st stage) 7,500 (2nd stage) 8,000 (3rd stage) 66,000 (4th stage) TOTAL: 73,000+ 30 000 (1st stage) 38,000 (2nd stage) 25,000 (3rd stage) 40,000 (4th stage) TOTAL: 70,000+ CASUALTIES AND LOSSES 211 on the first day 3,600 (2nd stage) 4,000 (3rd stage) 1,122 killed and 4,362 wounded (4th stage) TOTAL: 13,500+ KILLED AND WOUNDED Unknown 10,000 killed (2nd stage) 10,000 (3rd stage) 4,000 killed or wounded and 36,000 surrendered (4th stage) TOTAL: 24,000+ KILLED AND WOUNDED; 36,000 CAPTURED The BATTLE OF SHIPKA PASS consisted of four battles that were fought between the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, aided by Bulgarian volunteers known as Opalchentsi , and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for control over the vital Shipka Pass during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)
Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

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Siege Of Plevna
The SIEGE OF PLEVNA, or SIEGE OF PLEVEN, was a major battle of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 , fought by the joint army of Russia and Romania
Romania
against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. The Ottoman defense held up the main Russian advance southwards into Bulgaria
Bulgaria
for five months, encouraging other great powers actively to support the Ottoman cause. Eventually, superior Russian and Romanian numbers forced the garrison to capitulate. The Russian-Romanian victory on 10 December 1877 was decisive for the outcome of the war and the Liberation of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Siege * 2.1 First Battle * 2.2 Second Battle * 2.3 Third Battle * 2.4 Fourth Battle * 3 Results * 4 Legacy * 5 In popular culture * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links BACKGROUND This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES
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Brooklyn Museum
The BROOKLYN MUSEUM is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
. At 560,000 square feet (52,000 m2), the museum is New York City
New York City
's third largest in physical size and holds an art collection with roughly 1.5 million works. Located near the Prospect Heights , Crown Heights , Flatbush , and Park Slope neighborhoods of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and founded in 1895, the Beaux-Arts building, designed by McKim, Mead and White , was planned to be the largest art museum in the world
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British India
The PROVINCES OF INDIA, earlier PRESIDENCIES OF BRITISH INDIA and still earlier, PRESIDENCY TOWNS, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent. Collectively, they were called BRITISH INDIA. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: * During 1612–1757, the East India Company
East India Company
set up "factories" (trading posts) in several locations, mostly in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers. Its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Holland and France
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Nihilist Movement
The NIHILIST MOVEMENT was a Russian movement in the 1860s which rejected all authorities. It is derived from the Latin
Latin
nihil, meaning "nothing". After the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881, the Nihilists were known throughout Europe as proponents of the use of violence in order to bring about political change . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 The Two Nihilist Revolutions * 1.2 Mikhail Bakunin\'s Influence * 1.3 Chernyshevsky and Nihilist Socialism * 1.4 Hidden Nihilist Groups * 1.5 The White Terror * 1.6 Nechayev\'s Nihilist Revolution * 1.7 End of Nechayev and the First Nihilist Revolution * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References HISTORYTHE TWO NIHILIST REVOLUTIONSRussian nihilism (rus. "нигилизм") can be divided into two periods
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