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Vasily Vereshchagin
Vasily Vasilyevich Vereshchagin (Russian: Васи́лий Васи́льевич Вереща́гин, October 26, 1842 – April 13, 1904), was one of the most famous Russian war artists and one of the first Russian artists to be widely recognised abroad. The graphic nature of his realist scenes led to many of them never being printed or exhibited.[1]Contents1 Years of apprenticeship 2 Travels in Central Asia 3 Russo–Turkish War 4 World fame 5 Last years 6 Legacy 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 Further reading 10 Notes 11 References 12 External linksYears of apprenticeship[edit] Vereshchagin was born at Cherepovets, Novgorod Governorate, Russia, in 1842 as the middle of three brothers. His father was a landowner of noble birth, while his mother had Tatar origins.[2][3][4] When he was eight years old, he was sent to Tsarskoe Selo
Tsarskoe Selo
to enter the Alexander Cadet Corps
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Dukhobor
The Doukhobors or Dukhobors (Russian: Духоборы, Dukhobory, earlier Dukhobortsy, Russian: Духоборцы; literally "Spirit-Warriors of Christ") are a Spiritual Christian religious group of Russian origin. With support from the Canadian government, 7500 moved to Western Canada around 1900. They were pacifists who lived in communes that rejected personal materialism and had little use for schools. When one faction, the "Sons of Freedom" or "Freedomites", began using arson and nude marches as protest techniques, they became highly controversial. The government took back most of their Saskatchewan land in 1907, and their leader, Peter Verigin, led most of them to new colonies in British Columbia. Verigin was assassinated in 1924 by persons unknown, and his son took over. The word Doukhobor means "Spirit Wrestlers"; they are part of Spiritual Christianity. The origin of the Doukhobors is uncertain. The first records of them are from the 18th century
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Himalayas
The Himalayas, or Himalaya
Himalaya
(/ˌhɪməˈleɪə, hɪˈmɑːləjə/), form a mountain range in Asia
Asia
separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The Himalayan range has many of the Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest. The Himalayas
Himalayas
include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 metres (23,600 ft) in elevation, including all of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia
Asia
(Aconcagua, in the Andes) is 6,961 metres (22,838 ft) tall.[1] Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs, west-northwest to east-southeast, in an arc 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) long.[2] Its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus
Indus
river
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Nihilist Movement
The Nihilist movement was a Russian movement in the 1860s which rejected all authorities.[1] It is derived from the Latin
Latin
nihil, meaning "nothing". After the assassination of Tsar Alexander II
Tsar Alexander II
in 1881, the Nihilists were known throughout Europe as proponents of the use of violence in order to bring about political change.Contents1 History1.1 The Two Nihilist Revolutions 1.2 Mikhail Bakunin's Influence 1.3 Chernyshevsky and Nihilist Socialism 1.4 Hidden Nihilist Groups 1.5 The White Terror 1.6 Nechayev's Nihilist Revolution 1.7 End of Nechayev and the First Nihilist Revolution2 See also 3 Notes 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The Two Nihilist Revolutions[edit] Russian nihilism (rus. "нигилизм") can be divided into two periods
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Turkestan
Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia
Central Asia
between Siberia
Siberia
to the north and Tibet, India
India
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert
Gobi Desert
to the east
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Siege
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault. This derives from sedere, Latin
Latin
for "to sit".[1] Siege
Siege
warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conflict characterized by one party holding a strong, static, defensive position. Consequently, an opportunity for negotiation between combatants is not uncommon, as proximity and fluctuating advantage can encourage diplomacy. A siege occurs when an attacker encounters a city or fortress that cannot be easily taken by a quick assault, and which refuses to surrender. Sieges involve surrounding the target to block the provision of supplies and the reinforcement or escape of troops (a tactic known as "investment"[2])
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British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India
India
and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods:During 1612–1757, the East India Company
East India Company
set up "factories" (trading posts) in several locations, mostly in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors
Mughal emperors
or local rulers. Its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Holland and France. By the mid-18th century, three "Presidency towns": Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta
Calcutta
had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company gradually acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies"
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Cross Of St George
The Cross of Saint George (Russian: Георгиевский Крест) is a state decoration of the Russian Federation. It was initially established by Imperial Russia where it was officially known as the Decoration of the Military Order of Saint George between 1807 and 1913. The Cross of Saint George was reinstated into the Russian awards system in 1992.Contents1 History 1807–1917 2 1992 reinstatement 3 Award description 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory 1807–1917[edit] Established in the February 1807 decree of Emperor Alexander I, it was intended as a reward for "undaunted courage" by the lower ranks (soldiers, sailors and NCOs) of the military.[2] Article four of the decree ordered the decoration to hang from the same ribbon as the Order of Saint George
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Munich
Munich
Munich
(/ˈmjuːnɪk/; German: München, pronounced [ˈmʏnçn̩] ( listen),[2] Austro-Bavarian: Minga [ˈmɪŋ(ː)ɐ]) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar
Isar
north of the Bavarian Alps
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The Crystal Palace
The Crystal Palace
The Crystal Palace
was a cast-iron and plate-glass structure originally built in Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851
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London
London
London
(/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom.[7][8] Standing on the River Thames
River Thames
in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[9] London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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British Raj
Indian languagesGovernment ColonyMonarch of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Emperor/Empressa •  1858–1901 Victoria •  1901–1910 Edward VII •  1910–1936 George V •  1936 Edward VIII •  1936–1947 George VI Viceroy
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Paris Salon
The Salon (French: Salon), or rarely Paris
Paris
Salon (French: Salon de Paris), beginning in 1667[1] was the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts
Académie des Beaux-Arts
in Paris. Between 1748 and 1890 it was arguably the greatest annual or biennial art event in the Western world. At the 1761 Salon, thirty-three painters, nine sculptors, and eleven engravers contributed.[2] From 1881 onward, it has been managed by the Société des Artistes Français.Contents1 Origins 2 Prominence (1748–1890)2.1 Early splinter groups3 Secession 4 See also 5 Gallery 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksOrigins[edit] In 1667, the royally sanctioned French institution of art patronage, the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture[1] (a division of the Académie des beaux-arts), held its first semi-public art exhibit at the Salon Carré
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Tibet Under Qing Rule
Tibet
Tibet
under Qing rule refers to the Qing dynasty's rule over Tibet from 1720 to 1912. During the Qing rule of Tibet, the region was structurally, militarily and administratively controlled by the Qing dynasty established by the Manchus in China. In the history of Tibet, Qing administrative rule was established after a Qing army defeated the Dzungars
Dzungars
who occupied Tibet
Tibet
in 1720, and lasted until the fall of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in 1912, although the region retained a degree of political autonomy under the Dalai Lamas
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Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)
Russian coalition victoryTreaty of San Stefano Treaty of BerlinTerritorial changesReestablishment of the Bulgarian state De jure independence of Romania, Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
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Battle Of Shipka Pass
5,000 (1st stage) 7,500[1] (2nd stage) 8,000 (3rd stage) 66,000[2] (4th stage) Total: 73,000+30 000 (1st stage) 38,000[1] (2nd stage) 25,000 (3rd stage) 40,000 (4th stage) Total: 70,000+Casualties and losses211 on the first day 3,600[3] (2nd stage) 4,000 (3rd stage) 1,122 killed and 4,362 wounded[4] (4th stage) Total: 13,500+ killed and wounded Unknown 10,000 killed[1] (2nd stage) 10,000 (3rd stage) 4,000 killed or wounded and 36,000 surrendered[2] (4th stage) Total: 24,000+ killed and wounded; 36,000 capturedThe Battle of Shipka Pass
Shipka Pass
consisted of four battles that were fought between the Russian Empire, aided by Bulgarian volunteers known as Opalchentsi, and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for control over the vital Shipka Pass during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)
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