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Values
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions. It may be described as treating actions as abstract objects, putting value to them. It deals with right conduct and living a good life, in the sense that a highly, or at least relatively high valuable action may be regarded as ethically "good" (adjective sense), and that an action of low value, or relatively low in value, may be regarded as "bad".[citation needed] What makes an action valuable may in turn depend on the ethic values of the objects it increases, decreases or alters. An object with "ethic value" may be termed an "ethic or philosophic good" (noun sense). Values can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of actions or outcomes. As such, values reflect a person's sense of right and wrong or what "ought" to be
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Deviance (sociology)
In sociology, deviance describes an action or behavior that violates social norms, including a formally enacted rule (e.g., crime),[1] as well as informal violations of social norms (e.g., rejecting folkways and mores). Although deviance may have a negative connotation, the violation of social norms is not always a negative action; positive deviation exists in some situations. This is where the norm is violated, yet the behavior can still be classified as positive or acceptable.[2] It is the purview of criminologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and sociologists to study how these norms are created, how they change over time, and how they are enforced. Norms are rules and expectations by which members of society are conventionally guided. Deviance is an absence of conformity to these norms. Social norms differ from culture to culture
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World Values Survey
Survey may refer to:Contents1 Types of surveying1.1 Human research 1.2 Spatial measurement 1.3 Earth science 1.4 Astronomy 1.5 Other types of survey2 Organizations2.1 Geospatial survey organizations 2.2 Geological survey organizations 2.3 Other survey organizations3 See alsoTypes of surveying[edit] Human research[edit] For organizations, see § Organizations. Survey (human research), including opinion polls
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Business Ethics
Business
Business
ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and entire organizations.[1] These ethics originate from individuals, organizational statements or from the legal system. These norms, values, ethical, and unethical practices are what is used to guide business. They help those businesses maintain a better connection with their stakeholders.[2] Business
Business
ethics refers to contemporary organizational standards, principles, sets of values and norms that govern the actions and behavior of an individual in the business organization. Business ethics have two dimensions, normative business ethics or descriptive business ethics
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Corporate Governance
Corporate governance
Corporate governance
is the mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and directed.[1] Governance structures and principles identify the distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation (such as the board of directors, managers, shareholders, creditors, auditors, regulators, and other stakeholders) and includes the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate affairs.[2] Corporate governance includes the processes through which corporations' objectives are set and pursued in the context of the social, regulatory and market environment. Governance mechanisms include monitoring the actions, policies, practices, and decisions of corporations, their agents, and affected stakeholders
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Moral Philosophy
Ethics
Ethics
or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.[1] The term ethics derives from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἠθικός (ethikos), from ἦθος (ethos), meaning 'habit, custom'. The branch of philosophy axiology comprises the sub-branches of ethics and aesthetics, each concerned with values.[2] Ethics
Ethics
seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime
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Normative Ethics
Normative ethics is the study of ethical action. It is the branch of philosophical ethics that investigates the set of questions that arise when considering how one ought to act, morally speaking. Normative ethics is distinct from meta-ethics because it examines standards for the rightness and wrongness of actions, while meta-ethics studies the meaning of moral language and the metaphysics of moral facts. Normative ethics is also distinct from descriptive ethics, as the latter is an empirical investigation of people’s moral beliefs. To put it another way, descriptive ethics would be concerned with determining what proportion of people believe that killing is always wrong, while normative ethics is concerned with whether it is correct to hold such a belief. Hence, normative ethics is sometimes called prescriptive, rather than descriptive
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Social Psychology
Social psychology
Social psychology
is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.[1] In this definition, scientific refers to the empirical investigation using the scientific method. The terms thoughts, feelings, and behaviors refer to psychological variables that can be measured in humans. The statement that others' presence may be imagined or implied suggests that humans are malleable to social influences even when alone, such as when watching television or following internalized cultural norms. Social psychologists typically explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and social situations. Social psychologists examine factors that cause behaviors to unfold in a given way in the presence of others. They study conditions under which certain behavior, actions, and feelings occur
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Sociology
Sociology
Sociology
is the scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.[1][2][3] It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation[4] and critical analysis[5] to develop a body of knowledge about social order, acceptance, and change. Many sociologists aim to conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure.[6] The traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality, gender, and deviance
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Theology
Theology
Theology
is the critical study of the nature of the divine
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Culture
Culture
Culture
(/ˈkʌltʃər/) is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture
Culture
is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Some aspects of human behavior, social practices such as culture, expressive forms such as art, music, dance, ritual, religion, and technologies such as tool usage, cooking, shelter, and clothing are said to be cultural universals, found in all human societies
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Anthropology
Anthropology
Anthropology
is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.[1][2][3] Social anthropology
Social anthropology
and cultural anthropology[1][2][3] study the norms and values of societies.
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Society
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent of members. In the social sciences, a larger society often evinces stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups. Insofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap. A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society
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Honour
Honour
Honour
(British English) or honor (American English; see spelling differences) is an abstract concept entailing a perceived quality of worthiness and respectability that affects both the social standing and the self-evaluation of an individual or institution such as a family, school, regiment or nation. Accordingly, individuals (or institutions) are assigned worth and stature based on the harmony of their actions with a specific code of honour, and the moral code of the society at large. Samuel Johnson, in his A Dictionary of the English Language
A Dictionary of the English Language
(1755), defined honour as having several senses, the first of which was "nobility of soul, magnanimity, and a scorn of meanness." This sort of honour derives from the perceived virtuous conduct and personal integrity of the person endowed with it
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Personal Life
Personal life
Personal life
is the course of an individual's life, especially when viewed as the sum of personal choices contributing to one's personal identity.[1] In ancient past, most people's time was limited by the need to meet necessities such as food and shelter and there was not much leisure time. People identified with their social role in their community, and engaged in jobs based on necessity rather than personal choice. Privacy
Privacy
in such communities was rare. The modern conception of personal life is an offshoot of modern Western society. A modern person tends to distinguish one's work from one's personal life. It is a person's choices and preferences outside work that define personal life, including one's choice of hobbies, cultural interests, manner of dress, and so on. In particular, what activities one engages in during leisure-time defines a person's personal life
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Justice
Justice
Justice
is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.[2] The concept of justice differs in every culture. An early theory of justice was set out by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato
Plato
in his work The Republic. Advocates of divine command theory say that justice issues from God. In the 17th century, theorists like John Locke advocated natural rights as a derivative of justice.[3] Thinkers in the social contract tradition state that justice is derived from the mutual agreement of everyone concerned. In the 19th century, utilitarian thinkers including John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill
said that justice is what has the best consequences. Theories of distributive justice concern what is distributed, between whom they are to be distributed, and what is the proper distribution. Egalitarians state that justice can only exist within the coordinates of equality
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