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Valencia (DO)
VALENCIA is a Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) (Denominació d'Origen in Valencian ) for wines located in the province of Valencia ( Valencian Community ) and is divided into two separate zones and four sub-zones each one of which produces a different type of wine. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Sub-zones * 2.1 Valentino * 2.2 Alto Turia * 2.3 Moscatel * 2.4 Clariano * 3 Soils * 4 Climate * 5 Grapes * 6 Wines * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYGrape growing and wine production has been present in this area for thousands of years as attested by several archaeological finds, including Neolithic
Neolithic
tombs containing remains of grapes. The wine from Sagunto was mentioned in texts by Juvenal
Juvenal
and Marcial in the 2nd century BC
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Sémillon
SéMILLON is a golden-skinned grape used to make dry and sweet white wines , mostly in France and Australia . Its thin skin and susceptibility to botrytis make it dominate the sweet wine region Sauternes AOC and Barsac AOC in France. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Viticulture
Viticulture
* 3 Regional production * 3.1 France * 3.2 Australia * 3.3 South Africa * 3.4 Other regions * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY A Late-Harvest Semillon from Washington State. The Sémillon
Sémillon
grape is native to the Bordeaux region . It was known as Sémillon
Sémillon
de Saint-Émilion
Saint-Émilion
in 1736, while Sémillon
Sémillon
also resembles the local pronunciation of the town’s name ()
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Garnacha Tintorera
ALICANTE BOUSCHET or ALICANTE HENRI BOUSCHET is a wine grape variety that has been widely cultivated since 1866. It is a cross of Petit Bouschet (itself a cross of the very old variety Teinturier du Cher and Aramon ) and Grenache . Alicante is a teinturier , a grape with red flesh. It is one of the few teinturier grapes that belong to the Vitis vinifera species. Its deep color makes it useful for blending with light red wine. It was planted heavily during Prohibition in California for export to the East Coast . Its thick skin made it resistant to rot during the transportation process. The intense red color was also helpful for stretching the wine during prohibition, as it could be diluted without detracting from the appearance. At the turn of the 21st century, Alicante Bouschet was the 12th most planted red wine grape in France with sizable plantings in the Languedoc , Provence and Cognac regions
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Garnacha Tinta
GRENACHE (/ɡrəˈnɑːʃ/ ) or GARNACHA (IPA: ) is one of the most widely planted red wine grape varieties in the world. It ripens late, so it needs hot, dry conditions such as those found in Spain
Spain
, where the grape most likely originated. It is also grown in the Italian isle of Sardinia
Sardinia
, the south of France
France
, Australia , and California 's San Joaquin Valley . It is generally spicy, berry-flavored and soft on the palate and produces wine with a relatively high alcohol content , but it needs careful control of yields for best results. Characteristic flavor profiles on Grenache include red fruit flavors (raspberry and strawberry) with a subtle, white pepper spice note
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Sauvignon Blanc
SAUVIGNON BLANC is a green-skinned grape variety that originates from the Bordeaux
Bordeaux
region of France
France
. The grape most likely gets its name from the French words sauvage ("wild") and blanc ("white") due to its early origins as an indigenous grape in South West France
France
. It is possibly a descendant of Savagnin . Sauvignon blanc
Sauvignon blanc
is planted in many of the world's wine regions, producing a crisp, dry, and refreshing white varietal wine . The grape is also a component of the famous dessert wines from Sauternes and Barsac
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Chardonnay
CHARDONNAY (pronounced ) is a green-skinned grape variety used in the production of white wine . The variety originated in the Burgundy wine region of eastern France , but is now grown wherever wine is produced, from England to New Zealand . It is also used in Italy to produce sparkling wines like Franciacorta for example. For new and developing wine regions, growing Chardonnay
Chardonnay
is seen as a "rite of passage" and an easy entry into the international wine market. The Chardonnay
Chardonnay
grape itself is very neutral, with many of the flavors commonly associated with the grape being derived from such influences as terroir and oak . It is vinified in many different styles, from the lean, crisply mineral wines of Chablis, France, to New World wines with oak, and tropical fruit flavors
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Continental Climate
CONTINENTAL CLIMATES are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having a coldest month mean temperature below -3 C (26.6 F) or 0 °C depending on which isotherm used for the coldest month and four months above 10 °C. In the Köppen climate system, Continental climates are bordered to the south by Temperate climates or C climates (coldest month above 0 C, but below 18 C) and to the north by Boreal climate or E climates (only 1 to 3 months with a mean temperature of 50 F). Köppen also defined continental climates as having more than 30 days with continuous snowcover on the ground. Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature (hot summers and cold winters). They tend to occur in the middle latitudes (40 to 55 north), where prevailing winds come from over land, and temperatures are not moderated by bodies of water such as oceans or seas
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Malvasía
MALVASIA (Italian pronunciation: , also known as MALVAZIA) is a group of wine grape varieties grown historically in the Mediterranean region , Balearic islands , Canary Islands and the island of Madeira , but now grown in many of the winemaking regions of the world. In the past, the names Malvasia, Malvazia, and MALMSEY have been used interchangeably for Malvasia-based wines; however, in modern oenology , "Malmsey" is now used almost exclusively for a sweet variety of Madeira wine made from the Malvasia grape. Grape varieties in this family include Malvasia bianca, Malvasia di Schierano, Malvasia negra, Malvasia nera, Malvasia nera di Brindisi and a number of other varieties
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Moscatel Romano
MUSCAT OF ALEXANDRIA is a white wine grape that is a member of the Muscat family of Vitis vinifera . It is considered an "ancient vine", and wine experts believe it is one of the oldest genetically unmodified vines still in existence. While today it is mostly cultivated as a table grape or for raisin production, it is still an important grape in the Australian and South African wine industry. It is also cultivated very heavily on the islands of Samos , and Lemnos in the North Eastern Aegean region of Greece , and reputedly Cleopatra drank muscat wine from there. It is also thought to rival the French Beaume de Venise in its most refined form. In Italy wine is made from the grape on the island of Pantelleria , and in Spain , the grape is used for wine around Málaga , Alicante , Valencia , and the Canary Islands . The grape originated in North Africa , and the name is probably derived from its association with Ancient Egyptians who used the grape for wine making
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Cabernet Sauvignon
CABERNET SAUVIGNON (French: ) is one of the world's most widely recognized red wine grape varieties . It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates from Canada\'s Okanagan Valley to Lebanon\'s Beqaa Valley
Beqaa Valley
. Cabernet Sauvignon became internationally recognized through its prominence in Bordeaux wines where it is often blended with Merlot and Cabernet Franc . From France
France
, the grape spread across Europe
Europe
and to the New World where it found new homes in places like California\'s Santa Cruz Mountains , Napa Valley , New Zealand 's Hawkes Bay , Australia\'s Margaret River and Coonawarra regions, and Chile\'s Maipo Valley
Maipo Valley
and Colchagua . For most of the 20th century, it was the world's most widely planted premium red wine grape until it was surpassed by Merlot in the 1990s
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Pinot Noir
PINOT NOIR (French: ) is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis Vinifera . The name may also refer to wines created predominantly from Pinot Noir grapes. The name is derived from the French words for pine and black. The pine alluding to the grape variety having tightly clustered, pine cone-shaped bunches of fruit. Pinot Noir grapes are grown around the world, mostly in the cooler climates, but the grape is chiefly associated with the Burgundy region of France . Pinot Noir is also used in some Italian wines like Franciacorta (in North of Italy) for example
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Geographical Indications And Traditional Specialities In The European Union
Three European Union
European Union
schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties, known as PROTECTED DESIGNATION OF ORIGIN (PDO), PROTECTED GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION (PGI), and TRADITIONAL SPECIALITIES GUARANTEED (TSG), promote and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs. Products registered under one of the three schemes may be marked with the logo for that scheme to help identify those products. The schemes are based on the legal framework provided by the EU Regulation No 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 November 2012 on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs. This regulation (enforced within the EU and being gradually expanded internationally via bilateral agreements between the EU and non-EU countries) ensures that only products genuinely originating in that region are allowed to be identified as such in commerce. The legislation first came into force in 1992
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Aragon
ARAGON (/ˈærəɡɒn/ or /ˈærəɡən/ , Spanish and Aragonese : Aragón , Catalan : Aragó or ) is an autonomous community in Spain , coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon . Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces (from north to south): Huesca , Zaragoza , and Teruel . Its capital is Zaragoza (also called Saragossa in English). The current Statute of Autonomy declares Aragon a nationality of Spain. Aragon's northern province of Huesca borders France and is positioned in the middle of the Pyrenees . Within Spain, the community is flanked by Catalonia to the east, Valencian Community and Castilla–La Mancha to the south, and Castile and León , La Rioja , and Navarre to the west
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Castilla-La Mancha
CASTILLA-LA MANCHA (English: /kæˈstiːjə lɑː ˈmɑːntʃə/ ; Spanish: ( listen ); sometimes written in English as CASTILE–LA MANCHA) is a south-western European region that was part of the Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
. Nowadays it is established as an autonomous community of Spain
Spain
. Castilla- La Mancha
La Mancha
is bordered by Castile and León , Madrid
Madrid
, Aragon
Aragon
, Valencia
Valencia
, Murcia , Andalusia
Andalusia
, and Extremadura . It is one of the most sparsely populated of Spain's autonomous communities. Albacete
Albacete
is the largest and most populous city. Its capital city is Toledo , and its judicial capital city is Albacete
Albacete

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Trellises (vine)
The use of VINE TRAINING SYSTEMS in viticulture is aimed primarily to assist in canopy management with finding the balance in enough foliage to facilitate photosynthesis without excessive shading that could impede grape ripening or promote grape diseases . Additional benefits of utilizing particular training systems could be to control potential yields and to facilitate mechanization of certain vineyard tasks such as pruning , irrigation , applying pesticide or fertilizing sprays as well as harvesting the grapes . In deciding on what type of vine training system to use, growers will also consider the climate conditions of the vineyard where the amount of sunlight, humidity and wind could have a large impact on the exact benefits the training system offers. For instance, while having a large spread out canopy (such as what the Geneva Double Curtain offers) can promote a favorable leaf to fruit ratio for photosynthesis, it offers very little wind protection
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Syrah
SYRAH is a dark-skinned grape variety grown throughout the world and used primarily to produce red wine . In 1999, Syrah
Syrah
was found to be the offspring of two obscure grapes from southeastern France
France
, Dureza and Mondeuse Blanche . Syrah
Syrah
should not be confused with Petite Sirah ; a cross of Syrah
Syrah
with Peloursin dating from 1880. The style and flavor profile of wines made from Syrah
Syrah
is influenced by the climate where the grapes are grown with moderate climates (such as the northern Rhone Valley and parts of the Walla Walla AVA in Washington State ) tending to produce medium to full-bodied wines with medium-plus to high levels of tannins and notes of blackberry, mint and black pepper
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