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Valdemar Poulsen
VALDEMAR POULSEN (23 November 1869 – 23 July 1942) was a Danish engineer who made significant contributions to early radio technology. He developed a magnetic wire recorder called the TELEGRAPHONE in 1899 and the first continuous wave radio transmitter , the Poulsen arc transmitter, in 1903, which was used in some of the first broadcasting stations until the early 1920s. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Legacy * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYHe was born on 23 November 1869 in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
. The magnetic recording was demonstrated in principle as early as 1898 by Valdemar Poulsen
Valdemar Poulsen
in his telegraphone. Magnetic wire recording , and its successor, magnetic tape recording , involve the use of a magnetizable medium which moves past a recording head
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Vacuum Tube
In electronics , a VACUUM TUBE, an ELECTRON TUBE, or just a TUBE (North America), or VALVE (Britain and some other regions), is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container. Vacuum
Vacuum
tubes mostly rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or a cathode heated by the filament. This type is called a THERMIONIC TUBE or THERMIONIC VALVE. A phototube , however, achieves electron emission through the photoelectric effect . Not all electronic circuit valves/electron tubes are vacuum tubes (evacuated); gas-filled tubes are similar devices containing a gas, typically at low pressure, which exploit phenomena related to electric discharge in gases , usually without a heater. The simplest vacuum tube, the diode , contains only a heater, a heated electron-emitting cathode (the filament itself acts as the cathode in some diodes), and a plate (anode)
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Jay Wright Forrester
JAY WRIGHT FORRESTER (July 14, 1918 – November 16, 2016) was a pioneering American computer engineer and systems scientist . He was a professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management . Forrester is known as the founder of system dynamics , which deals with the simulation of interactions between objects in dynamic systems . Forrester had as his colleague for a time C. Robert Wieser . CONTENTS * 1 Life and career * 2 See also * 3 Publications * 4 References * 5 External links LIFE AND CAREERForrester was born on a farm near Anselmo, Nebraska , where "his early interest in electricity was spurred, perhaps, by the fact that the ranch had none
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Andrew Bobeck
ANDREW H. BOBECK (October 1, 1926 - December 14, 2017) is a noted Bell Labs researcher best known for his invention of bubble memory . Bobeck was born in Tower Hill, Pennsylvania , received his B.S. (1948) and M.S. (1949) degrees in electrical engineering from Purdue University , and in 1949 joined Bell Laboratories where he helped design communication and pulse transformers , and then one of the first solid-state digital computers. Starting in 1956 he devoted his efforts to the development of magnetic logic and memory devices
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONTROL NUMBER (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names. The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
prepared cards of bibliographic information for their library catalog and would sell duplicate sets of the cards to other libraries for use in their catalogs
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. PARIS (French pronunciation: ​ ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city in France
France
, with an administrative-limits area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official population of 2,206,488 (2015). The city is a commune and department , and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4,638-square-mile) Île-de- France
France
region (colloquially known as the ' Paris
Paris
Region'), whose 2016 population of 12,142,802 represented roughly 18 percent of the population of France. Since the 17th century, Paris
Paris
has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts
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Timeline Of Historic Inventions
The TIMELINE OF HISTORIC INVENTIONS is a chronological list of particularly important or significant technological inventions and the people who created the inventions. Note: Dates for inventions are often controversial. Inventions are often invented by several inventors around the same time, or may be invented in an impractical form many years before another inventor improves the invention into a more practical form. Where there is ambiguity, the date of the first known working version of the invention is used here
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Copenhagen
COPENHAGEN (Danish : København ( listen ); Latin
Latin
: Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark
Denmark
. The city has a population of 763,908 (as of December 2016 ), of whom 601,448 live in the Municipality of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
. The larger urban area has a population of approximately 1.3 million (as of 1 January 2016 ), within the Capital Region of Denmark
Denmark
while the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
metropolitan area includes the closest part of Region Zealand
Region Zealand
and has over 2 million inhabitants
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Wayback Machine
The WAYBACK MACHINE is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
, a nonprofit organization , based in San Francisco
San Francisco
, California
California
, United States . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Technical details * 2.1 Storage capabilities * 2.2 Growth * 2.3 Website exclusion policy * 2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy * 3 Uses * 3.1 In legal evidence * 3.1.1 Civil litigation * 3.1.1.1 Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. * 3.1.1.2 Telewizja Polska
Telewizja Polska
* 3.1.2 Patent law * 3.1.3 Limitations of utility * 4 Legal status * 5 Archived content legal issues * 5.1 Scientology
Scientology
* 5.2 Healthcare Advocates, Inc
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YouTube
YOUTUBE is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California . The service was created by three former PayPal employees— Chad Hurley
Chad Hurley
, Steve Chen , and Jawed Karim
Jawed Karim
—in February 2005. Google
Google
bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion; YouTube
YouTube
now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries . YouTube
YouTube
allows users to upload, view, rate, share, add to favorites, report, comment on videos, and subscribe to other users . It offers a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips , TV show clips, music videos , short and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers , live streams , and other content such as video blogging , short original videos, and educational videos
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Massachusetts Institute Of Technology
The MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge, Massachusetts
, United States. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States , MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering . The Institute is traditionally known for its research and education in the physical sciences and engineering , but more recently in biology , economics , linguistics and management as well. MIT is often cited among the world's best universities by various organizations . As of 2017 , 88 Nobel laureates , 52 National Medal of Science recipients, 65 Marshall Scholars , 45 Rhodes Scholars , 38 MacArthur Fellows , 34 astronauts , 21 Turing award winners , 16 Chief Scientists of the U.S. Air Force and 6 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT
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John R. Pierce
JOHN ROBINSON PIERCE (March 27, 1910 – April 2, 2002), was an American engineer and author. He worked extensively in the fields of radio communication , microwave technology, computer music , psychoacoustics , and science fiction . As a sideline to his professional career he wrote science fiction for many years under various names: John Pierce, John R. Pierce, and J.J. Coupling. Born in Des Moines, Iowa
Des Moines, Iowa
, he earned his PhD from Caltech , and died in Palo Alto, California from complications of Parkinson's Disease
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1900 World's Fair
The EXPOSITION UNIVERSELLE of 1900 was a world\'s fair held in Paris , France, from 14 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next. The style that was universally present in the Exposition was Art Nouveau . The fair, visited by nearly 50 million, displayed many machines, inventions, and architecture that are now nearly universally known, including the Grande Roue de Paris Ferris wheel , Russian nesting dolls , diesel engines , talking films , escalators , and the telegraphone (the first magnetic audio recorder)
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International Standard Name Identifier
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NAME IDENTIFIER (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks. It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012. The ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 ( TC 46/SC 9 ) is responsible for the development of the standard. ISNI can be used to disambiguate names that might otherwise be confused, and links the data about names that are collected and used in all sectors of the media industries
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Continuous Wave
A CONTINUOUS WAVE or CONTINUOUS WAVEFORM (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency ; almost always a sine wave , that for mathematical analysis is considered to be of infinite duration. Continuous wave
Continuous wave
is also the name given to an early method of radio transmission , in which a sinusoidal carrier wave is switched on and off. Information
Information
is carried in the varying duration of the on and off periods of the signal, for example by Morse code in early radio. In early wireless telegraphy radio transmission, CW waves were also known as "undamped waves", to distinguish this method from damped wave signals produced by earlier spark gap type transmitters
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Radio Transmitter
In electronics and telecommunications a TRANSMITTER or RADIO TRANSMITTER is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna . The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current , which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current the antenna radiates radio waves. In addition to their use in broadcasting , transmitters are necessary component parts of many electronic devices that communicate by radio , such as cell phones , wireless computer networks , Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers , two-way radios in aircraft, ships, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation , such as radar and navigational transmitters
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