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Valée System
The Valée system
Valée system
(French:"Système Valée") was an artillery system developed between 1825 and 1831 by the French artillery officer Sylvain Charles Valée,[1] and officially adopted by the French Army from 1828.Contents1 Specifications 2 Deployment 3 See also 4 NotesSpecifications[edit]Valée artillery train for a canon de 12.Obusier de 15 cm Valée, modèle 1828, founded in 1852 in Douai. Caliber: 151 mm. Length: 1.71 m. Weight: 587 kg. Ammunition: shell within sabot, 7.7 kg.The Valée system
Valée system
consisted in various technical improvements to the Gribeauval
Gribeauval
system and Napoleon I's Year XI system
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Gribeauval
Lieutenant General Jean-Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval (15 September 1715 – 9 May 1789) was a French artillery officer and engineer who revolutionized French cannon, creating a new production system that allowed lighter, more uniform guns without sacrificing range. His Gribeauval system superseded the de Vallière system. These guns proved essential to French military victories during the Napoleonic wars. Gribeauval is credited as the earliest known advocate for interchangeability of gun parts. He is thus one of the principal influences on the later development (over many decades by many people) of interchangeable manufacture.[1]Contents1 Early life 2 Gribeauval system 3 References 4 SourcesEarly life[edit] Jean-Baptiste was born in Amiens, the son of a magistrate
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Invasion Of Algiers In 1830
Decisive French victoryAnnexation of Algiers
Algiers
by FranceBelligerents France Regency of AlgiersCommanders and leaders Admiral Duperré Louis Auguste Victor, Count de Ghaisnes de Bourmont Hussein Dey Hasan Agha Ibrahim Agha Bey Haj AliStrength103 warships 464 transports 37,612 combatants 27,000 sailors Heavy Artillery: 83 10,000 combatants Regular troops: 3,000 janissaries 1,000 Moors Volunteers: 3,000 Arabs
Arabs
and 2,000 Berbers Others: 1,000 Artillery: 20Casualties and losses415 killed and 2160 wounded [1] unknown (Estimated: between 600 and 1500)v t eFrench conquest of AlgeriaAlgiers Staouéli Macta Sikkak 1st Constantine 2nd Constantine Mazagran Smala Sidi BrahimThe Invasion of Algiers
Algiers
in 1830 was a large-scale military operation by which the Kingdom of France, ruled by Charles X, invaded and conquered the Ottoman Regency of Algiers
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Modèle 1892 Revolver
The Model 1892 revolver (also known as the "Lebel revolver" and the "St. Etienne 8mm") is a French service revolver produced by Manufacture d'armes de Saint-Étienne
Manufacture d'armes de Saint-Étienne
as a replacement for the MAS 1873 revolver. It was the standard issue sidearm for officers in the French military during the First World War. The Modèle 1892 revolver
Modèle 1892 revolver
is a solid frame revolver with the cylinder on a separate frame swinging right for manual reloading. The Modèle 1892 was first fielded in 1893 and was prominent among French military officers during First World War, and later the French police
French police
until the mid-1960s. A mechanically tight and very well finished handgun, the Modèle 1892 fires 8mm rounds with a striking power equivalent to that of a .32 ACP round
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Machine Gun
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher. Not all fully automatic firearms are machine guns. Submachine guns, rifles, assault rifles, shotguns, pistols or cannons may be capable of fully automatic fire, but are not designed for sustained fire. As a class of military rapid-fire guns, machine guns are fully automatic weapons designed to be used as support weapons and generally used when attached to a mount- or fired from the ground on a bipod or tripod. Many (but not all) machine guns also use belt feeding and open bolt operation, features not normally found on rifles. By U.S
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French Army
The French Army, officially the Ground Army
Army
(French: Armée de terre [aʀme də tɛʀ]) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces. It is responsible to the Government of France, along with the other four components of the Armed Forces. The current Chief of Staff of the French Army
Chief of Staff of the French Army
(CEMAT) is General Jean-Pierre Bosser, a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff (CEMA). General Bosser is also responsible, in part, to the Ministry of the Armed Forces for organization, preparation, use of forces, as well as planning and programming, equipment and Army
Army
future acquisitions
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Small Arms
In international arms control, small arms are man-portable firearms that shoot kinetic projectiles, including handguns (revolvers and pistols) and individual-operated long guns such as rifles and carbines, shotguns, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, and light machine guns. Together with light weapons, which either are team-operated (e.g
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Gatling Gun
The Gatling gun
Gatling gun
is one of the best-known early rapid-fire spring loaded, hand cranked weapons and a forerunner of the modern machine gun. Invented by Richard Gatling, it is known for its use by the Union forces during the American Civil War
American Civil War
in the 1860s, which was the first time it was employed in combat. Later, it was used again in numerous military conflicts, such as the Boshin War, the Anglo-Zulu War, and the assault on San Juan Hill during the Spanish–American War.[4] It was also used by the Pennsylvania militia in episodes of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, specifically in Pittsburgh. The Gatling gun's operation centered on a cyclic multi-barrel design which facilitated cooling and synchronized the firing-reloading sequence
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Shotgun Shell
A shotgun shell is a self-contained cartridge typically loaded with multiple metallic "shot", which are small, generally spherical projectiles. The shells consist of a case mounted on a brass base holding a primer. The shot is typically contained in a small container inside the shell casing.[1] Shot has traditionally been made of lead, but steel, tungsten or bismuth is frequently used due to restrictions on lead.[2] A shotgun shell can contain a single, large projectile known as a shotgun slug. They can also be made with specialty non-lethal rounds such as beanbag rounds, and rubber
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Concord, Massachusetts
Concord (locally /ˈkɒŋ.kərd/) is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in the United States. At the 2010 census, the town population was 17,668.[1] The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
considers Concord part of Greater Boston. The town center is located near where the confluence of the Sudbury and Assabet rivers forms the Concord River. The area which became the town of Concord was originally known as Musketaquid, an Algonquian word for "grassy plain". It was one of the scenes of the Battle of Lexington and Concord, the initial conflict in the American Revolutionary War. It developed into a remarkably rich literary center during the mid-nineteenth century. Featured were Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Amos Bronson Alcott, Louisa May Alcott and Henry David Thoreau, all of whose homes are preserved in modern-day Concord
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Strasbourg
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Part of the series onAlsaceRot un Wiss, traditional flag of AlsaceHistory Germania Superior
Germania Superior
(Pagus Alsatiae) (83–475) <
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Howitzers
A howitzer /ˈhaʊ.ɪtsər/ is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.Pre- World War I
World War I
290 mm howitzer battery at Charlottenlund
Charlottenlund
Fort, Denmark.In the taxonomies of artillery pieces used by European (and European-style) armies in the 17th to 20th centuries, the howitzer stood between the "gun" (characterized by a longer barrel, larger propelling charges, smaller shells, higher velocities, and flatter trajectories) and the "mortar" (which was meant to fire at even higher angles of ascent and descent)
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Hotchkiss M1914 Machine Gun
The Mle 1914 Hotchkiss machine gun chambered for the 8mm Lebel cartridge became the standard machine gun of the French Army
French Army
during World War I. It was manufactured by the French arms company Hotchkiss et Cie, which had been established in the 1860s by American industrialist Benjamin B. Hotchkiss. The gas-actuated Hotchkiss system was first formulated in 1895 by Odkolek von Ujezda and improved into its final form by Hotchkiss armament engineers Laurence Benét and Henri Mercié. The Mle 1914 was the last version of a series of nearly identical Hotchkiss designs : the Mle 1897, Mle 1900 and the Mle 1909. The Hotchkiss Mle 1914 became the French infantry standard in late 1917, replacing the unreliable St. Étienne Mle 1907. The American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) in France
France
also purchased 7,000 Mle 1914 Hotchkiss machine guns in 8mm Lebel, and used them extensively at the front in 1917 and 1918
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Napoleon I
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon, he was Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French
from 1804 until 1814, and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon
Napoleon
dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France
France
against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide
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Douai
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Douai
Douai
(pronounced [dwɛ]; Dutch: Dowaai, and historically "Doway" in English) is a commune in the Nord département in northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department. Located on the river Scarpe some 40 kilometres (25 miles) from Lille
Lille
and 25 km (16 mi) from Arras, Douai
Douai
is home to one of the region's most impressive belfries
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Cannon
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant. In the past, gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder in the 19th century. Cannon
Cannon
vary in caliber, range, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, and firepower; different forms of cannon combine and balance these attributes in varying degrees, depending on their intended use on the battlefield. The word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can usually be translated as tube, cane, or reed
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