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Vagueness
In analytic philosophy and linguistics, a concept may be considered vague if its extension is deemed lacking in clarity, if there is uncertainty about which objects belong to the concept or which exhibit characteristics that have this predicate (so-called "border-line cases"), or if the Sorites paradox
Sorites paradox
applies to the concept or predicate.[1] The concept of ambiguity is generally contrasted with vagueness. In ambiguity, specific and distinct interpretations are permitted (although some may not be immediately obvious), whereas with information that is vague, it is difficult to form any interpretation at the desired level of specificity. In everyday speech, vagueness is an inevitable, often even desired, effect of language usage
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Analytic Philosophy
Analytic philosophy
Analytic philosophy
(sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the west at the beginning of the 20th century. In the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Scandinavia, the majority of university philosophy departments today identify themselves as "analytic" departments.[1] The term "analytic philosophy" can refer to one of several things:As a philosophical practice,[2][3] it is characterized by an emphasis on argumentative clarity and precision, often making use of formal logic, conceptual analysis, and, to a lesser degree, mathematics and the natural sciences.[4][5][6] As a historical development, analytic philosophy refers to certain developments in early 20th-century philosophy that were the historical antecedents of the current practice. Central figures in this historical development are Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, G. E
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Truth-value
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.[1]Contents1 Classical logic 2 Intuitionistic and constructive logic 3 Multi-valued logic 4 Algebraic semantics 5 In other theories 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksClassical logic[edit] ⊤ true  ·∧· conjunction¬↕↕ ⊥ false·∨· disjunction Negation interchanges true with false and conjunction with disjunctionIn classical logic, with its intended semantics, the truth values are true (1 or T), and untrue or false (0 or ⊥); that is, classical logic is a two-valued logic. This set of two values is also called the Boolean domain
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Principle Of Legal Certainty
Legal certainty is a principle in national and international law which holds that the law must provide those subject to it with the ability to regulate their conduct. Legal certainty is internationally recognised as a central requirement for the rule of law.Contents1 Definition 2 Rule of law 3 Europe3.1 General principle of European Union law 3.2 European human rights law4 United States 5 See also 6 ReferencesDefinition[edit] The legal system needs to permit those subject to the law to regulate their conduct with certainty and to protect those subject to the law from arbitrary use of state power. Legal certainty represents a requirement that decisions be made according to legal rules, i.e. be lawful. The concept of legal certainty may be strongly linked to that of individual autonomy in national jurisprudence. The degree to which the concept of legal certainty is incorporated into law varies depending on national jurisprudence
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Many-valued Logic
In logic, a many-valued logic (also multi- or multiple-valued logic) is a propositional calculus in which there are more than two truth values. Traditionally, in Aristotle's logical calculus, there were only two possible values (i.e., "true" and "false") for any proposition. Classical two-valued logic may be extended to n-valued logic for n greater than 2
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Peter Van Inwagen
Peter van Inwagen (/væn ɪnˈwɑːɡən/; born September 21, 1942) is an American analytic philosopher and the John Cardinal O'Hara Professor of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame. He is also a Research Professor of Philosophy at Duke University
Duke University
each Spring.[2] He previously taught at Syracuse University
Syracuse University
and earned his PhD from the University of Rochester
University of Rochester
in 1969[3] under the direction of Richard Taylor.[4] Van Inwagen is one of the leading figures in contemporary metaphysics, philosophy of religion, and philosophy of action
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Identity Of Indiscernibles
The identity of indiscernibles is an ontological principle that states that there cannot be separate objects or entities that have all their properties in common. That is, entities x and y are identical if every predicate possessed by x is also possessed by y and vice versa; to suppose two things indiscernible is to suppose the same thing under two names. It states that no two distinct things (such as snowflakes) can be exactly alike, but this is intended as a metaphysical principle rather than one of natural science. A related principle is the indiscernibility of identicals, discussed below. A form of the principle is attributed to the German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It is one of his two great metaphysical principles, the other being the principle of sufficient reason. Both are famously used in his arguments with Newton and Clarke in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence. Because of its association with Leibniz, the principle is sometimes known as Leibniz's law
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Gareth Evans (philosopher)
Gareth Evans (/ˈɛvənz/; 12 May 1946 – 10 August 1980) was a British philosopher who made substantial contributions to logic, philosophy of language and philosophy of mind. He is best known for his posthumous work The Varieties of Reference
Reference
(1982), edited by John McDowell. The book considers different kinds of reference to objects, and argues for a number of conditions that must obtain for reference to occur.Contents1 Life 2 Work2.1 The Varieties of Reference2.1.1 Background 2.1.2 Evans's project 2.1.3 Kinds of reference 2.1.4 Language issues3 Selected publications 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksLife[edit] Gareth Evans was born in London on 12 May 1946. He was educated at Dulwich College
Dulwich College
and University College, Oxford
Oxford
(1964–67) where he read Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE)
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Cloud
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol comprising a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or particles suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of a planetary body.[1] The droplets and crystals may be made of water or various chemicals. On Earth, clouds are formed as a result of saturation of the air when it is cooled to its dew point, or when it gains sufficient moisture (usually in the form of water vapor) from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature. They are seen in the Earth's homosphere (which includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere). Nephology is the science of clouds which is undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology. There are two methods of naming clouds in their respective layers of the atmosphere; Latin
Latin
and common
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Peter Unger
Peter K. Unger (/ˈʌŋɡər/; born April 25, 1942) is a contemporary American philosopher and professor at New York University. His main interests lie in the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and the philosophy of mind.Contents1 Biography 2 Selected publications2.1 Books 2.2 Articles3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Unger attended Swarthmore College at the same time as David Lewis, earning a B.A. in philosophy in 1962,[1] and Oxford University, where he studied under A. J. Ayer[2] and earned a doctorate in 1966.[3] Unger has written a defense of profound philosophical skepticism. In Ignorance (1975), he argues that nobody knows anything and even that nobody is reasonable or justified in believing anything. In Philosophical Relativity (1984), he argues that many philosophical questions cannot be definitively answered. In the field of applied ethics, his best-known work is Living High and Letting Die (1996)
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Nicholas Rescher
Nicholas Rescher
Nicholas Rescher
(/ˈrɛʃər/; German: [ˈʀɛʃɐ]; born 15 July 1928) is a German-American philosopher at the University of Pittsburgh. He is the Co-Chairman of the Center for Philosophy
Philosophy
of Science and has formerly served as Chairman of the Philosophy Department.[1] Rescher has served as president for the American Catholic Philosophical Association, American G.W
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Journal Of Philosophical Logic
The Journal of Philosophical Logic
Logic
is a peer-reviewed scientific journal founded in 1972
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Linguistics
Linguistics
Linguistics
is the scientific[1] study of language,[2] and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.[3] The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini,[4][5] who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī.[6] Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning.[7] Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties
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Tautology (logic)
In logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation. A simple example is "(x equals y) or (x does not equal y)" (or as a less abstract example, "The ball is green or the ball is not green"). Philosopher
Philosopher
Ludwig Wittgenstein
Ludwig Wittgenstein
first applied the term to redundancies of propositional logic in 1921. (It had been used earlier to refer to rhetorical tautologies, and continues to be used in that alternative sense.) A formula is satisfiable if it is true under at least one interpretation, and thus a tautology is a formula whose negation is unsatisfiable. Unsatisfiable statements, both through negation and affirmation, are known formally as contradictions. A formula that is neither a tautology nor a contradiction is said to be logically contingent
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Truth Value
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.[1]Contents1 Classical logic 2 Intuitionistic and constructive logic 3 Multi-valued logic 4 Algebraic semantics 5 In other theories 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksClassical logic[edit] ⊤ true  ·∧· conjunction¬↕↕ ⊥ false·∨· disjunction Negation interchanges true with false and conjunction with disjunctionIn classical logic, with its intended semantics, the truth values are true (1 or T), and untrue or false (0 or ⊥); that is, classical logic is a two-valued logic. This set of two values is also called the Boolean domain
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Kit Fine
Kit Fine (born 26 March 1946) is a British philosopher, currently University Professor and Silver Professor of Philosophy
Philosophy
and Mathematics
Mathematics
at New York University. Prior to joining NYU in 1997, he taught at the University of Edinburgh, University of California, Irvine, University of Michigan
University of Michigan
and UCLA
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