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VNTR
A variable number tandem repeat (or VNTR) is a location in a genome where a short nucleotide sequence is organized as a tandem repeat. These can be found on many chromosomes, and often show variations in length (number of repeats) among individuals. Each variant acts as an inherited allele, allowing them to be used for personal or parental identification
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Genome
In terms of modern molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses)
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BioNumerics
BioNumerics is a suite of bioinformatics software applications developed by the company Applied Maths NV.

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Genetic Diversity
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. It is distinguished from genetic variability, which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary. Genetic diversity serves as a way for populations to adapt to changing environments. With more variation, it is more likely that some individuals in a population will possess variations of alleles that are suited for the environment. Those individuals are more likely to survive to produce offspring bearing that allele. The population will continue for more generations because of the success of these individuals. The academic field of population genetics includes several hypotheses and theories regarding genetic diversity. The neutral theory of evolution proposes that diversity is the result of the accumulation of neutral substitutions
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Nucleotide Sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule. By convention, sequences are usually presented from the 5' end to the 3' end. For DNA, the sense strand is used. Because nucleic acids are normally linear (unbranched) polymers, specifying the sequence is equivalent to defining the covalent structure of the entire molecule. For this reason, the nucleic acid sequence is also termed the primary structure. The sequence has capacity to represent information. Biological deoxyribonucleic acid represents the information which directs the functions of a living thing. Nucleic acids also have a secondary structure and tertiary structure. Primary structure is sometimes mistakenly referred to as primary sequence
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Satellite DNA
Satellite DNA consists of very large arrays of tandemly repeating, non-coding DNA
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Alu Sequence
An Alu element is a short stretch of DNA originally characterized by the action of the Arthrobacter luteus (Alu) restriction endonuclease. Alu elements are the most abundant transposable elements, containing over one million copies dispersed throughout the human genome. Alu elements are also known as selfish or parasitic genes, because their sole function is self reproduction. They are derived from the small cytoplasmic 7SL RNA, a component of the signal recognition particle. Alu elements are highly conserved within primate genomes and originated in the genome of an ancestor of Supraprimates. Alu insertions have been implicated in several inherited human diseases and in various forms of cancer. The study of Alu elements has also been important in elucidating human population genetics and the evolution of primates, including the evolution of humans.

Interspersed Repeat
Interspersed repetitive DNA is found in all eukaryotic genomes. They differ from tandem repeat DNA in that rather than the repeat sequences coming right after one another, they are dispersed throughout the genome and nonadjacent. The sequence that repeats can vary depending on the type of organism, and many other factors. Certain classes of interspersed repeat sequences propagate themselves by RNA mediated transposition; they have been called retrotransposons, and they constitute 25–40% of most mammalian genomes
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DNA Sequencing
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases—adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine—in a strand of DNA. The advent of rapid DNA sequencing methods has greatly accelerated biological and medical research and discovery. Knowledge of DNA sequences has become indispensable for basic biological research, and in numerous applied fields such as medical diagnosis, biotechnology, forensic biology, virology and biological systematics
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Medical Subject Headings
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE/PubMed article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only. It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed
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Combined DNA Index System
The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) is the United States national DNA database created and maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. CODIS consists of three levels of information; Local DNA Index Systems (LDIS) where DNA profiles originate, State DNA Index Systems (SDIS) which allows for laboratories within states to share information, and the National DNA Index System (NDIS) which allows states to compare DNA information with one another. The CODIS software contains multiple different databases depending on the type of information being searched against. Examples of these databases include, missing persons, convicted offenders, and forensic samples collected from crime scenes. Each state, and the federal system, has different laws for collection, upload, and analysis of information contained within their database
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Transposable Element
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size. Transposition often results in duplication of the same genetic material. Barbara McClintock's discovery of these jumping genes earned her a Nobel Prize in 1983. Transposable elements make up a large fraction of the genome and are responsible for much of the mass of DNA in a eukaryotic cell
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Retrotransposon
Retrotransposons also called transposons via RNA intermediate are genetic elements that can amplify themselves in a genome and are ubiquitous components of the DNA of many eukaryotic organisms. These DNA sequences use a "copy-and-paste" mechanism, whereby they are first transcribed into RNA, then converted back into identical DNA sequences using reverse transcription, and these sequences are then inserted into the genome at target sites. Retrotransposons form one of the two subclasses of transposons, where the others are DNA transposons, which does not involve an RNA intermediate. Retrotransposons are particularly abundant in plants, where they are often a principal component of nuclear DNA
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