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V-bomber
The term V BOMBER was used for the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) aircraft during the 1950s and 1960s that composed the United Kingdom\'s strategic nuclear strike force known officially as the V-FORCE or BOMBER COMMAND MAIN FORCE. The strategic bombers , whose names all started with the letter "V" and which were known collectively as the V-class, included the Vickers VALIANT (first flew 1951, entered service 1955), Avro
Avro
VULCAN (first flew 1952, in service 1956) and Handley Page VICTOR (first flew 1952, in service 1958). The V-Bomber force reached its peak in June 1964, with 50 Valiants, 70 Vulcans and 39 Victors in service. When it became clear that Soviet surface-to-air missiles like the S-75 Dvina
S-75 Dvina
could successfully bring down high flying aircraft, the V bomber force changed to low-level attack methods
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Henry Tizard
SIR HENRY THOMAS TIZARD GCB AFC FRS (23 August 1885 – 9 October 1959) was an English chemist , inventor and Rector of Imperial College , who developed the modern "octane rating " used to classify petrol , helped develop radar in World War II, and led the first serious studies of UFOs . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Career * 2.1 World War I * 2.2 World War II * 2.3 Post-WWII * 3 Awards and honors * 4 Death * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links LIFETizard was born in Gillingham , Kent in 1885. His ambition to join the navy was thwarted by poor eyesight, and he instead studied at Westminster School and Magdalen College, Oxford , where he concentrated on mathematics and chemistry , doing work on indicators and the motions of ions in gases in 1911. Tizard was married on 24 April 1915 to Kathleen Eleanor (d. 1968), daughter of Arthur Prangley Wilson, a mining engineer
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Avro Lancaster
The AVRO LANCASTER is a British four-engined Second World War heavy bomber . It was designed and manufactured by Avro
Avro
as a contemporary of the Handley Page Halifax
Handley Page Halifax
, both bombers having been developed to the same specification, as well as the Short Stirling , all three aircraft being four-engined heavy bombers adopted by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) during the same wartime era. The Lancaster has its origins in the twin-engine Avro
Avro
Manchester which had been developed during the late 1930s in response to the Air Ministry Specification P.13/36 for a capable medium bomber for "world-wide use"
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Manhattan Project
The MANHATTAN PROJECT was a research and development undertaking during World War II
World War II
that produced the first nuclear weapons . It was led by the United States
United States
with the support of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Canada
Canada
. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves
Leslie Groves
of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers . Nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer was the director of the Los Alamos Laboratory that designed the actual bombs. The Army component of the project was designated the MANHATTAN DISTRICT; "Manhattan" gradually superseded the official codename, DEVELOPMENT OF SUBSTITUTE MATERIALS, for the entire project. Along the way, the project absorbed its earlier British counterpart, Tube Alloys
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Tizard Committee
The COMMITTEE FOR THE SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF AIR DEFENCE (CSSAD), also known as the TIZARD COMMITTEE after its chairman, Henry Tizard , was a pre- World War II
World War II
scientific mission to study the needs of anti-aircraft warfare in the UK. The Committee is best known for its role in shepherding the development of radar and the building of the Chain Home
Chain Home
radar array and its associated control centres. Winston Churchill credited the success of the Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
to this work. CSSAD was formed in 1934. In September 1939, it was merged with the Committee for the Scientific Survey of Air Offence, which had been formed in 1937, and was also chaired by Tizard, to form the Committee for the Scientific Survey of Air Warfare (CSSAW). Tizard helped convince Churchill to hand over Britain's most important secret weapons technology to the Americans with no strings attached
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Missile
In modern language, a MISSILE is a self-propelled precision-guided munition system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided ). Missiles have four system components: targeting or missile guidance , flight system, engine, and warhead. Missiles come in types adapted for different purposes: surface-to-surface and air-to-surface missiles (ballistic , cruise , anti-ship , anti-tank , etc.), surface-to-air missiles (and anti-ballistic ), air-to-air missiles , and anti-satellite weapons . All known existing missiles are designed to be propelled during powered flight by chemical reactions inside a rocket engine , jet engine , or other type of engine. Non-self-propelled airborne explosive devices are generally referred to as shells and usually have a shorter range than missiles
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Avro Lincoln
The AVRO TYPE 694, better known as the AVRO LINCOLN, was a British four-engined heavy bomber , which first flew on 9 June 1944. Developed from the Avro
Avro
Lancaster , the first Lincoln variants were initially known as the LANCASTER IV and V, these were subsequently renamed LINCOLN I and II. It holds the distinction of being the last piston-engined bomber operated by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF). The Lincoln attained operational status in August 1945. It had been initially assigned to units of the Tiger Force , a Commonwealth heavy bomber force, which had been intended to play a role in the closing stages of the Second World War by participating in Allied operations against the Japanese mainland ; however, the war came to an end prior to the Lincoln ever being used in combat
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Piston-engine
A RECIPROCATING ENGINE, also often known as a PISTON ENGINE, is typically a heat engine (although there are also pneumatic and hydraulic reciprocating engines) that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion . This article describes the common features of all types. The main types are: the internal combustion engine , used extensively in motor vehicles; the steam engine , the mainstay of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
; and the niche application Stirling engine
Stirling engine
. Internal combustion engines are further classified in two ways: either a spark-ignition (SI) engine , where the spark plug initiates the combustion; or a compression-ignition (CI) engine , where the air within the cylinder is compressed, thus heating it , so that the heated air ignites fuel that is injected then or earlier
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Malay Archipelago
The MALAY ARCHIPELAGO (Malaysian "> Pinisi sailing ship exploring Komodo island , part of Lesser Sunda Islands
Lesser Sunda Islands
The 19th-century naturalist Alfred Wallace used the term "Malay Archipelago" as the title of his influential book documenting his studies in the region. Wallace also referred to the area as the "Indian Archipelago" and the "Indo-Australian" Archipelago. He included within the region the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
and the Malay Peninsula due to physiographic similarities
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Indonesia–Malaysia Confrontation
Commonwealth victory: * Sukarno
Sukarno
replaced by Suharto
Suharto
. * Indonesia
Indonesia
accepts formation of Malaysia
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Tanker Aircraft
AERIAL REFUELING, also referred to as AIR REFUELING, IN-FLIGHT REFUELING (IFR), AIR-TO-AIR REFUELING (AAR), and TANKING, is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one military aircraft (the tanker ) to another (the receiver) during flight. The two main refueling systems are probe-and-drogue, which is simpler to adapt to existing aircraft, and the flying boom, which offers faster fuel transfer, but requires a dedicated boom operator station. The procedure allows the receiving aircraft to remain airborne longer, extending its range or loiter time on station. A series of air refuelings can give range limited only by crew fatigue and engineering factors such as engine oil consumption. Because the receiver aircraft can be topped up with extra fuel in the air, air refueling can allow a takeoff with a greater payload which could be weapons, cargo, or personnel: the maximum takeoff weight is maintained by carrying less fuel and topping up once airborne
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Second World War
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations
League of Nations
* Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIED POWERS AXIS POWERS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS * Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
* Franklin D
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Cold War
The COLD WAR was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its satellite states ) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States
United States
, its NATO allies and others). Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine , a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism, was announced, and either 1989, when communism fell in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, or 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
collapsed . The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional wars known as proxy wars
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos * " E pluribus unum
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Geoffrey T. R. Hill
Professor GEOFFREY TERENCE ROLAND HILL MC , M.Sc, M.I.Mech.E., FRAeS (1895–1955), was a British aviator and aeronautical engineer . He was a pilot with No. 29 Squadron RFC and later a test pilot during the First World War as was his brother Roderic . Both working with Handley Page . He designed a series of tailless aircraft, the Westland-Hill Pterodactyls , from the 1920s onwards. After the last Pterodactyl flew in 1932, he ended his association with Westland Aircraft in order to take up a chair as Professor of Engineering Science at London University . In 1939 he headed a project in Pawlett, near Bridgwater, Somerset, investigating methods for cutting the cables on enemy barrage balloons ; recovery from stalling after contact with such cables was an important part of his work there. He was British Scientific Liaison Officer at the National Research Council (NRC) in Canada in the mid-1940s
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Vickers-Armstrongs
For the modern day New Zealand aircraft company see: Vickers
Vickers
Aircraft Company For other companies using the "Vickers" name, see Vickers
Vickers

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