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V-bomber
The term V bomber
V bomber
was used for the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) aircraft during the 1950s and 1960s that composed the United Kingdom's strategic nuclear strike force known officially as the V-force or Bomber Command Main Force. The strategic bombers, whose names all started with the letter "V" and which were known collectively as the V-class, included the Vickers Valiant
Vickers Valiant
(first flew 1951, entered service 1955), Avro Vulcan
Avro Vulcan
(first flew 1952, in service 1956) and Handley Page Victor
Handley Page Victor
(first flew 1952, in service 1958). The V-Bomber force reached its peak in June 1964, with 50 Valiants, 70 Vulcans and 39 Victors in service. When it became clear that Soviet surface-to-air missiles like the S-75 Dvina could successfully bring down high flying aircraft, the V bomber force changed to low-level attack methods
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Short Sperrin
The Short SA.4 Sperrin (named after the Sperrin Mountains) was a British jet bomber design of the early 1950s, built by Short Brothers and Harland of Belfast. It first flew in 1951. From the onset, the design had been viewed as a fall-back option in case the more advanced strategic bomber aircraft, then in development to equip the Royal Air Force's nuclear-armed V bomber
V bomber
force, experienced delays; the Sperrin was not put into production because these swept-wing designs, such as the Vickers Valiant, were by then available. As their usefulness as an interim bomber aircraft did not emerge, a pair of flying prototypes were instead used to gather research data on large jet aircraft and to support the development of other technologies, such as several models of jet engines
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Cold War
The Cold War
Cold War
was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
(the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc
Western Bloc
(the United States, its NATO allies and others). Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine, a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism, was announced, and either 1989, when communism fell in Eastern Europe, or 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
collapsed
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Tanker Aircraft
Aerial refueling, also referred to as air refueling, in-flight refueling (IFR), air-to-air refueling (AAR), and tanking, is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one military aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight.[1] The two main refueling systems are probe-and-drogue, which is simpler to adapt to existing aircraft, and the flying boom, which offers faster fuel transfer, but requires a dedicated boom operator station. The procedure allows the receiving aircraft to remain airborne longer, extending its range or loiter time on station. A series of air refuelings can give range limited only by crew fatigue and engineering factors such as engine oil consumption. Because the receiver aircraft can be topped up with extra fuel in the air, air refueling can allow a takeoff with a greater payload which could be weapons, cargo, or personnel: the maximum takeoff weight is maintained by carrying less fuel and topping up once airborne
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Second World War
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Piston-engine
A reciprocating engine, also often known as a piston engine, is typically a heat engine (although there are also pneumatic and hydraulic reciprocating engines) that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion. This article describes the common features of all types. The main types are: the internal combustion engine, used extensively in motor vehicles; the steam engine, the mainstay of the Industrial Revolution; and the niche application Stirling engine
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Avro Lincoln
The Avro
Avro
Type 694, better known as the Avro
Avro
Lincoln, was a British four-engined heavy bomber, which first flew on 9 June 1944. Developed from the Avro
Avro
Lancaster, the first Lincoln variants were initially known as the Lancaster IV and V, these were subsequently renamed Lincoln I and II. It holds the distinction of being the last piston-engined bomber operated by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF). The Lincoln attained operational status in August 1945. It had been initially assigned to units of the Tiger Force, a Commonwealth heavy bomber force, which had been intended to play a role in the closing stages of the Second World War by participating in Allied operations against the Japanese mainland; however, the war came to an end prior to the Lincoln ever being used in combat
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Avro Lancaster
The Avro
Avro
Lancaster is a British four-engined Second World War heavy bomber. It was designed and manufactured by Avro
Avro
as a contemporary of the Handley Page
Handley Page
Halifax, both bombers having been developed to the same specification, as well as the Short Stirling, all three aircraft being four-engined heavy bombers adopted by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) during the same wartime era. The Lancaster has its origins in the twin-engine Avro
Avro
Manchester
Manchester
which had been developed during the late 1930s in response to the Air Ministry Specification P.13/36 for a capable medium bomber for "world-wide use"
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Henry Tizard
Sir Henry Thomas Tizard GCB AFC FRS (23 August 1885 – 9 October 1959) was an English chemist, inventor and Rector of Imperial College, who developed the modern "octane rating" used to classify petrol, helped develop radar in World War II, and led the first serious studies of UFOs.Contents1 Life 2 Career2.1 World War I 2.2 World War II 2.3 Post-WWII3 Awards and honors 4 Death 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksLife[edit] Tizard was born in Gillingham, Kent
Gillingham, Kent
in 1885, the only son of Thomas Henry Tizard (1839–1924), naval officer and hydrographer, and his wife, Mary Elizabeth Churchward. His ambition to join the navy was thwarted by poor eyesight, and he instead studied at Westminster School and Magdalen College, Oxford, where he concentrated on mathematics and chemistry, doing work on indicators and the motions of ions in gases
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Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
was a research and development undertaking during World War II
World War II
that produced the first nuclear weapons. It was led by the United States
United States
with the support of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Canada. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves
Leslie Groves
of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Oppenheimer
was the director of the Los Alamos Laboratory that designed the actual bombs. The Army component of the project was designated the Manhattan District; "Manhattan" gradually superseded the official codename, Development of Substitute Materials, for the entire project. Along the way, the project absorbed its earlier British counterpart, Tube Alloys
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Tizard Committee
The Committee for the Scientific Survey of Air Defence (CSSAD),[1] also known as the Tizard Committee after its chairman, Henry Tizard, was a pre- World War II
World War II
scientific mission to study the needs of anti-aircraft warfare in the UK. The Committee is best known for its role in shepherding the development of radar and the building of the Chain Home
Chain Home
radar array and its associated control centres
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Missile
In modern language, a missile is a self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided). Missiles have four system components: targeting or missile guidance, flight system, engine, and warhead. Missiles come in types adapted for different purposes: surface-to-surface and air-to-surface missiles (ballistic, cruise, anti-ship, anti-tank, etc.), surface-to-air missiles (and anti-ballistic), air-to-air missiles, and anti-satellite weapons
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "He h
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Malay Archipelago
The Malay Archipelago
The Malay Archipelago
(Malaysian & Indonesian: Kepulauan Melayu/Nusantara, Filipino: Kapuluang Malay, Visayan: Kapupud-ang Malay) is the archipelago between mainland Indochina
Indochina
and Australia. It has also been called the Malay World, Indo-Australian Archipelago, East Indies, Nusantara, Spices Archipelago, and other names over time. The name was taken from the 19th-century European concept of a Malay race, later based on the distribution of Austronesian
Austronesian
languages.[4] Situated between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the group of over 25,000 islands is the largest archipelago by area, and fourth by number of islands in the world
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Atomic Energy Act Of 1946
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.[note 1] Energy
Energy
is a conserved quantity; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational, electric or magnetic), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature. Mass
Mass
and energy are closely related
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Air Ministry
The Air Ministry
Air Ministry
was a department of the Government of the United Kingdom with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the Royal Air Force, that existed from 1918 to 1964
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