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Ustilaginomycotina
ExobasidiomycetesCeraceosorales Doassansiales Entylomatales Exobasidiales Georgefischeriales Microstromatales TilletialesUstilaginomycetesUrocystales UstilaginalesMalasseziomycetesMalassezioalesMoniliellomycetesMoniliellalesThe Ustilaginomycotina
Ustilaginomycotina
is a subdivision within the division Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
of the kingdom Fungi
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Cuticle
A cuticle /ˈkjuːtɪkəl/, or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection. Various types of "cuticle" are non-homologous, differing in their origin, structure, function, and chemical composition.Contents1 Human anatomy 2 Cuticle
Cuticle
of invertebrates 3 Botany 4 Mycology 5 ReferencesHuman anatomy[edit]Anatomy of the basic parts of a human nail.In human anatomy, cuticle (sometimes confused with eponychium) refers to several structures
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Incertae Sedis
Incertae sedis
Incertae sedis
( Latin
Latin
for "of uncertain placement")[1] is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined.[2] Alternatively, such groups are frequently referred to as "enigmatic taxa".[3] I
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Xylose
Xylose
Xylose
(cf. Greek: ξύλον, xylon, "wood") is a sugar first isolated from wood, and named for it. Xylose
Xylose
is classified as a monosaccharide of the aldopentose type, which means that it contains five carbon atoms and includes an aldehyde functional group. It is derived from hemicellulose, one of the main constituents of biomass. Like most sugars, it can adopt several structures depending on conditions. With its free aldehyde group, it is a reducing sugar.Contents1 Structure 2 Occurrence 3 Applications3.1 Chemicals 3.2 Human consumption 3.3 Animal medicine 3.4 Hydrogen production 3.5 Derivatives4 See also 5 ReferencesStructure[edit] The acyclic form of xylose has chemical formula HOCH2(CH(OH))3CHO. The cyclic hemiacetal isomers are more prevalent in solution and are of two types: the pyranoses, which feature six-membered C5O rings, and the furanoses, which feature five-membered C4O rings (with a pendant CH2OH group)
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Dolipore
Dolipore septa are specialized dividing walls between cells (septa) found in almost all species of fungi in the phylum Basidiomycota.[1] Unlike most fungal septa, they have a barrel-shaped swelling around their central pore, which is about 0.1-0.2 µm wide.[1][2] This structure is typically capped at either end by specialized membranes, called "parenthesomes" (after their parenthesis-like appearance under a microscope) or simply "pore caps".[2][3] The rusts (Pucciniales) and smuts (Ustilaginales), although classified in Basidiomycota, have not been observed to have dolipore septa.[1][2] Dolipore septa vary significantly between monokaryotic and dikaryotic hyphae, which form at different points in basidiomycete life cycles. In monokaryotic but not dikaryotic hyphae, the parenthesomes are continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum, and the septal walls are constructed from different material than the cell walls.[4] All dolipore septa can allow cytoplasm, and sometimes mitochondria, t
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Parenthesome
Within the cells of some members of basidiomycete fungi are found microscopic structures called parenthesomes or septal pore caps. They are shaped like parentheses and found on either side of pores in the dolipore septum which separates cells within a hypha. Their function has not been established, and their composition has not been fully elucidated. The variations in their appearance are useful in distinguishing individual species. Generally, they are barrel shaped, with an endoplasmic reticulum covering. See also[edit]Fungi portalPit connectionReferences[edit]Müller WH, Montijn RC, Humbel BM, et al. (July 1998). "Structural differences between two types of basidiomycete septal pore caps". Microbiology. 144 (Pt 7): 1721–30. doi:10.1099/00221287-144-7-1721. PMID 9695906. 7):1721-30. Moore, R.T. (1996). "V. The Dolipore/ Parenthesome Septum in Modern Taxonomy"
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Ribosome
The ribosome (/ˈraɪbəˌsoʊm, -boʊ-/[1]) is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation). Ribosomes link amino acids together in the order specified by messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA) molecules. Ribosomes consist of two major components: the small ribosomal subunits, which reads the RNA, and the large subunits, which joins amino acids to form a polypeptide chain. Each subunit is composed of one or more ribosomal RNA
RNA
(rRNA) molecules and a variety of ribosomal proteins (r-protein or rProtein[2][3][4])
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RNA
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. RNA
RNA
and DNA
DNA
are nucleic acids, and, along with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Like DNA, RNA
RNA
is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA
DNA
it is more often found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA) to convey genetic information (using the nitrogenous bases guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C) that directs synthesis of specific proteins
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Basidia
A basidium (pl., basidia) is a microscopic sporangium (or spore-producing structure) found on the hymenophore of fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi. The presence of basidia is one of the main characteristic features of the Basidiomycota. A basidium usually bears four sexual spores called basidiospores; occasionally the number may be two or even eight. In a typical basidium, each basidiospore is borne at the tip of a narrow prong or horn called a sterigma (pl. sterigmata), and is forcibly discharged upon maturity. The word basidium literally means little pedestal, from the way in which the basidium supports the spores. However, some biologists suggest that the structure more closely resembles a club
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Ultrastructural
Ultrastructure (or ultra-structure) is the architecture of cells that is visible at higher magnifications than found on a standard optical light microscope. This traditionally meant the resolution and magnification range of a conventional transmission electron microscope (TEM) when viewing biological specimens such as cells, tissue, or organs. Ultrastructure can also be viewed with scanning electron microscopy and super-resolution microscopy, although TEM is a standard histology technique for viewing ultrastructure. Such cellular structures as organelles, which allow the cell to function properly within its specified environment, can be examined at the ultrastructural level. Ultrastructure, along with molecular phylogeny, is a reliable phylogenetic way of classifying organisms.[1] References[edit]^ Laura Wegener Parfrey; Erika Barbero; Elyse Lasser; Micah Dunthorn; Debashish Bhattacharya; David J Patterson & Laura A Katz (December 2006)
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Electron Microscopy
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination. As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a higher resolving power than light microscopes and can reveal the structure of smaller objects
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Microbotryales
Microbotryaceae UstilentylomataceaeThe Microbotryales are an order of fungi in the Microbotryomycetes class of the Basidiomycota.[1] The order contains 2 families, 9 genera, and 114 species.[1] The order was circumscribed in 1997.[2] References[edit]^ a b Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 423. ISBN 0-85199-826-7.  ^ Bauer R, Oberwinkler F, Vánky K (1997). "Ultrastructural markers and systematics in smut fungi and allied taxa". Canadian Journal of Botany. 75 (8): 1273–14. doi:10.1139/b97-842. External links[edit]Taxon identifiersWd: Q4982410 EoL: 5853 EPPO: 1MICBO Fungorum: 90553 GBIF: 1130 iNaturalist: 152569 ITIS: 936400 MycoBank: 90553 NZOR: 9de28e8e-a5e6-42d8-949a-8cf1f3642de3 WoRMS: 890110This Basidiomycota-related article is a stub
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Vascular Plants
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species [5]) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue (the phloem) to conduct products of photosynthesis. Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms (including conifers) and angiosperms (flowering plants). Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta[6][4]:251 and Tracheobionta.[7]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Phylogeny 3 Nutrient distribution3.1 Transpiration 3.2 Absorption 3.3 Conduction4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyCharacteristics[edit] Vascular plants are distinguished by two primary characteristics:Vascular plants have vascular tissues which distribute resources through the plant
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HYPHAE
A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, “web”) is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.[1] In most fungi, hyphae are the main mode of vegetative growth, and are collectively called a mycelium.Contents1 Structure 2 Growth 3 Behavior 4 Modifications 5 Types5.1 Classification based on cell division 5.2 Classification based on cell wall and overall form 5.3 Classification based on refractive appearance6 See also 7 References 8 External linksStructure[edit] A hypha consists of one or more cells surrounded by a tubular cell wall. In most fungi, hyphae are divided into cells by internal cross-walls called "septa" (singular septum). Septa are usually perforated by pores large enough for ribosomes, mitochondria and sometimes nuclei to flow between cells. The major structural polymer in fungal cell walls is typically chitin, in contrast to plants and oomycetes that have cellulosic cell walls
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Angiosperms
sweet bayScientific classificationKingdom: PlantaeSubkingdom: Embryophyta(unranked): Spermatophyta(unranked): AngiospermsGroups (APG IV)[1]Basal angiospermsAmborellales Nymphaeales AustrobaileyalesCore angiospermsmagnoliids Chloranthales monocots Ceratophyllales eudicotsSynonyms Anthophyta Cronquist[2] Angiospermae Lindl. Magnoliophyta Cronquist, Takht.
Takht.
& W.Zimm.[3] Magnolicae Takht.[4]The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae[5][6] or Magnoliophyta,[7] are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.[8] Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds
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Monocots
An economically important monocotScientific classification Kingdom: PlantaeClade: AngiospermsClade: MonocotsType genusLilium L.[1]Ordersalismatid monocotsAcorales Alismataleslilioid monocotsAsparagales Dioscoreales Liliales Pandanales Petrosavialescommelinid monocotsArecales Commelinales Poales ZingiberalesSynonymsAlternifoliae Bessey[2] Endogenae DC.[3] Lilianae
Lilianae
Takht.[4][5] Liliatae Cronquist,
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