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Urkunden Des ægyptischen Altertums
Urkunden des ægyptischen Altertums is a series of editions of Ancient Egyptian texts, published between 1903–1961. The series comprises eight volumes:I. Urkunden des Alten Reichs (Old Kingdom) II. Hieroglyphische Urkunden der Griechisch-Römischen Zeit (Greek and Roman periods) III. Urkunden der Älteren Athiopenkönige (Nubian Dynasty), ed. Heinrich Schäfer 1905 [1] IV. Urkunden der 18. Dynastie (18th Dynasty), ed. Hans Wolfgang Helck 1955–1958 V. Religiöse Urkunden (religious texts) VI. Urkunden Mythologischen Inhalts (mythological texts) VII. Urkunden des Mittleren Reiches (Middle Kingdom) VIII. Historisch-biographische Urkunden der Zeit zwischen AR u. MR. (First Intermediate Period)This article about Egyptology
Egyptology
or subjects relating to Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
is a stub
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Ahmose, Son Of Ebana
A son is a male offspring; a boy or man in relation to his parents. The female counterpart is a daughter.Contents1 Etymology 2 Social issues regarding sons 3 Specialized use of the term son3.1 Christian symbolism 3.2 In Semitic names 3.3 Indications in names4 References 5 External linksEtymology[edit] Son as a word originated before 900 BCE; from Middle English sone, Old English sunu; cognate with Dutch zoon, German Sohn, Old Norse sunr, sonr, Gothic sunus, Lithuanian sūnùs ultimately from Sanskrit sūnus Social issues regarding sons[edit] In pre-industrial societies and some current countries with agriculture-based economies, a higher value was, and still is, assigned to sons rather than daughters, giving males higher social status, because males were physically stronger, and could perform farming tasks more effectively. In China, a One-child Policy was in effect until 2015 in order to address rapid population growth
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Ancient Egyptian Texts
Ancient Egyptian literature was written in the Egyptian language from ancient Egypt's pharaonic period until the end of Roman domination. It represents the oldest corpus of Egyptian literature. Along with Sumerian literature, it is considered the world's earliest literature.[1] Writing in ancient Egypt—both hieroglyphic and hieratic—first appeared in the late 4th millennium BC during the late phase of predynastic Egypt. By the Old Kingdom (26th century BC to 22nd century BC), literary works included funerary texts, epistles and letters, hymns and poems, and commemorative autobiographical texts recounting the careers of prominent administrative officials. It was not until the early Middle Kingdom (21st century BC to 17th century BC) that a narrative Egyptian literature was created. This was a "media revolution" which, according to Richard B
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Old Kingdom Of Egypt
The Old Kingdom is the period in the third millennium (c. 2686–2181 BC) also known as the 'Age of the Pyramids' or 'Age of the Pyramid Builders' as it includes the great 4th Dynasty when King Sneferu
Sneferu
perfected the art of pyramid building and the pyramids of Giza were constructed under the kings Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure.[1] Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization – the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods (followed by the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom) which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile
Nile
Valley. The term itself was coined by eighteenth-century historians and the distinction between the Old Kingdom and the Early Dynastic Period is not one which would have been recognized by Ancient Egyptians
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Ptolemaic Egypt
The Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
(/ˌtɒləˈmeɪ.ɪk/; Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía)[3] was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
kingdom based in Egypt. It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty, which started with Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
Soter's accession after the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. The Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
Soter, who declared himself Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt
Egypt
and created a powerful Hellenistic dynasty that ruled an area stretching from southern Syria
Syria
to Cyrene and south to Nubia
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Roman Egypt
The Roman province
Roman province
of Egypt
Egypt
(Latin: Aegyptus, pronounced [ae̯ˈɡʏptʊs]; Greek: Αἴγυπτος Aigyptos [ɛ́ːɡyptos]) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
of Egypt
Egypt
to the Roman Empire. The province encompassed most of modern-day Egypt
Egypt
except for the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
(which would later be conquered by Trajan). Aegyptus was bordered by the provinces of Creta et Cyrenaica to the West and Iudaea (later Arabia Petraea) to the East. The province came to serve as a major producer of grain for the empire and had a highly developed urban economy
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Twenty-fifth Dynasty Of Egypt
The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt
Egypt
(notated Dynasty XXV, alternatively 25th Dynasty or Dynasty 25), also known as the Nubian Dynasty or the Kushite
Kushite
Empire, was the last dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period that occurred after the Nubian invasion of Ancient Egypt. The 25th dynasty was a line of pharaohs who originated in the Kingdom of Kush, located in present-day northern Sudan
Sudan
and southern Egypt. Most this dynasty's kings saw Napata
Napata
as their spiritual homeland. They reigned in part or all of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
from 744–656 BC.[1] The dynasty began with Kashta's invasion of Upper Egypt
Egypt
and culminated in several years of both successful and unsuccessful war with the Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
based Assyrian Empire
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18th Dynasty Of Egypt
The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt
(notated Dynasty XVIII, alternatively 18th Dynasty or Dynasty 18) is classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom
New Kingdom
period, lasting from 1549/1550 BC to 1292 BC. It boasts several of Egypt's most famous pharaohs, including Tutankhamun, whose tomb was found by Howard Carter
Howard Carter
in 1922. This dynasty is also known as the Thutmosid
Thutmosid
Dynasty for the four pharaohs named Thutmose. Famous pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII include Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
(c. 1479 BC–1458 BC), longest-reigning woman-pharaoh of an indigenous dynasty, and Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(c
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Wolfgang Helck
Hans Wolfgang Helck (16 September 1914 – 27 August 1993) was a German Egyptologist, considered one of the most important Egyptologists of the 20th century. From 1956 until his retirement in 1979 he was a Professor at the University of Hamburg.[1] He remained active after his retirement and together with Wolfhart Westendorf published the German Lexikon der Ägyptologie (Encyclopedia of Egyptology), completed in 1992. He published many books and articles on the history of Egyptian and Near Eastern culture.[2] He was a member of the German Archaeological Institute
German Archaeological Institute
and a corresponding member of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences.[3] Helck was the son of philologist Hans Helck. He studied at the University of Leipzig
University of Leipzig
under Georg Steindorff and at the University of Göttingen under Hermann Kees, completing his studies in 1938
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Ancient Egyptian Religion
Ancient Egyptian religion
Ancient Egyptian religion
was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians' interaction with many deities who were believed to be present in, and in control of, the forces of nature. Rituals such as prayers and offerings were efforts to provide for the gods and gain their favor. Formal religious practice centered on the pharaoh, the ruler of Egypt, who was believed to possess a divine power by virtue of their position. He acted as the intermediary between their people and the gods and was obligated to sustain the gods through rituals and offerings so that they could maintain order in the universe. The state dedicated enormous resources to Egyptian rituals and to the construction of the temples. Individuals could interact with the gods for their own purposes, appealing for their help through prayer or compelling them to act through magic
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Middle Kingdom Of Egypt
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
(also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt
Egypt
between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II
Mentuhotep II
of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. Some scholars also include the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Egypt
wholly into this period as well, in which case the Middle Kingdom would finish c. 1650, while others only include it until Merneferre Ay
Merneferre Ay
c. 1700 BC, last king of this dynasty to be attested in both Upper and Lower Egypt
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First Intermediate Period
The First Intermediate Period, often described as a "dark period" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned approximately one hundred and twenty-five years, from c. 2181–2055 BC, after the end of the Old Kingdom.[1] It comprises the seventh (although it is mostly considered spurious by Egyptologists), eighth, ninth, tenth, and part of the eleventh dynasties. Very little monumental evidence survives from this period, especially towards the beginning of the era. The First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time in history where rule of Egypt was roughly divided between two competing power bases. One of those bases resided at Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt, a city just south of the Faiyum
Faiyum
region
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Egyptology
Egyptology
Egyptology
(from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. Arabic: علم المصريات‎) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD. A practitioner of the discipline is an "Egyptologist". In Europe, particularly on the Continent, Egyptology
Egyptology
is primarily regarded as being a philological discipline, while in North America it is often regarded as a branch of archaeology.Contents1 History1.1 First explorers 1.2 Graeco-Roman Period 1.3 Middle Ages2 Development of the field2.1 Muslim scholars 2.2 European explorers3 Modern Egyptology 4 Academic discipline 5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory First explorers The first explorers were the ancient Egyptians
Egyptians
themselves
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Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Egypt
was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile
Nile
River in the place that is now the country Egypt
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Urkunden Des ægyptischen Altertums
Urkunden des ægyptischen Altertums is a series of editions of Ancient Egyptian texts, published between 1903–1961. The series comprises eight volumes:I. Urkunden des Alten Reichs (Old Kingdom) II. Hieroglyphische Urkunden der Griechisch-Römischen Zeit (Greek and Roman periods) III. Urkunden der Älteren Athiopenkönige (Nubian Dynasty), ed. Heinrich Schäfer 1905 [1] IV. Urkunden der 18. Dynastie (18th Dynasty), ed. Hans Wolfgang Helck 1955–1958 V. Religiöse Urkunden (religious texts) VI. Urkunden Mythologischen Inhalts (mythological texts) VII. Urkunden des Mittleren Reiches (Middle Kingdom) VIII. Historisch-biographische Urkunden der Zeit zwischen AR u. MR. (First Intermediate Period)This article about Egyptology
Egyptology
or subjects relating to Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
is a stub
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.