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Uraninite
Uraninite, formerly pitchblende, is a radioactive, uranium-rich mineral and ore with a chemical composition that is largely UO2, but due to oxidation the mineral typically contains variable proportions of U3O8. Additionally, due to radioactive decay, the ore also contains oxides of lead and trace amounts of helium. It may also contain thorium, and rare earth elements.[1][3]Contents1 Overview 2 Occurrence 3 See also 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] Uraninite
Uraninite
used to be known as pitchblende (from pitch, because of its black color, and blende, a term used by German miners to denote minerals whose density suggested metal content, but whose exploitation, at the time they were named, was either unknown, impossible or not economically feasible). The mineral has been known at least since the 15th century from silver mines in the Ore Mountains, on the German/Czech border
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Chemical Composition
A Chemical composition is the identity, and relative number, of the elements that make up any particular compound. Composition of a substance[edit] The chemical composition of a pure substance corresponds to the relative amounts of the elements that constitute the substance itself. It can be expressed by the empirical formula. For example the formula for water is H2O: this means that each molecule is constituted by 2 atoms of hydrogen (H) and 1 atom of oxygen (O) . Composition of a mixture[edit] The chemical composition of a mixture can be defined as the distribution of the single substances that constitute the mixture, called "components". In other words, it is defined giving the concentration of each component. Because there are different ways to define the concentration of a component, as a consequence there are also different ways to define the composition of a mixture
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Pitch (resin)
Pitch is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers. Pitch can be natural or manufactured, derived from petroleum, coal tar[1] or plants. Various forms of pitch may also be called tar, bitumen or asphalt. Pitch produced from plants is also known as resin. Some products made from plant resin are also known as rosin. Pitch was traditionally used to help caulk the seams of wooden sailing vessels (see shipbuilding). Pitch may also be used to waterproof wooden containers and in the making of torches. Petroleum-derived pitch is black in colour, hence the adjectival phrase, "pitch-black".[citation needed]Contents1 Viscoelastic
Viscoelastic
properties 2 Production 3 See also 4 References 5 External links Viscoelastic
Viscoelastic
properties[edit] Naturally occurring asphalt/bitumen, a type of pitch, is a viscoelastic polymer
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Spontaneous Fission
Spontaneous fission
Spontaneous fission
(SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Oxidation
Redox
Redox
(short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: /ˈrɛdɒks/ redoks or /ˈriːdɒks/ reedoks[1]) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Any such reaction involves both a reduction process and a complementary oxidation process, two key concepts involved with electron transfer processes.[2] Redox
Redox
reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between chemical species. The chemical species from which the electron is stripped is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced
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Oxide
An oxide /ˈɒksaɪd/ is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element[1] in its chemical formula. "Oxide" itself is the dianion of oxygen, an O2– atom. Metal
Metal
oxides thus typically contain an anion of oxygen in the oxidation state of −2. Most of the Earth's crust
Earth's crust
consists of solid oxides, the result of elements being oxidized by the oxygen in air or in water. Hydrocarbon
Hydrocarbon
combustion affords the two principal carbon oxides: carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Even materials considered pure elements often develop an oxide coating
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Lead
Lead
Lead
is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin
Latin
plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead
Lead
is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is bluish-white; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead
Lead
has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each conclude a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead
Lead
is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal. Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and lead oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead
Compounds of lead
are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group
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Rare Earth Elements
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.[2] Scandium
Scandium
and yttrium are considered rare-earth elements because they tend to occur in the same ore deposits as the lanthanides and exhibit similar chemical properties. Rare-earth elements are cerium (Ce), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), lanthanum (La), lute
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Ore Mountains
Location in the Czech RepublicPhysical mapCountry Czech Republic border with GermanyStates/Provinces Karlovy Vary Region, Ústí n. L. Region and Saxony
Saxony
(Germany)Range coordinates 50°35′N 13°00′E / 50.583°N 13.000°E / 50.583; 13.000Coordinates: 50°35′N 13°00′E / 50.583°N 13.000°E / 50.583; 13.000GeologyOrogeny VariscanAge of rock PaleozoicType of rock sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic rocksThe Ore
Ore
Mountains or Ore
Ore
Mountain Range[1] ( /ɔːr/) (German: Erzgebirge [ˈeːɐ̯tsɡəbɪɐ̯ɡə]; Czech: Krušné hory; both literally "ore mountains"[2]) in Central Europe
Central Europe
have formed a natural border between Saxony
Saxony
and Bohemia for around 800 years, from the 12th to the 20th centuries
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Specific Gravity
Specific gravity
Specific gravity
is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume. Apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a volume of the substance to the weight of an equal volume of the reference substance. The reference substance for liquids is nearly always water at its densest (at 4 °C / 39.2 °F); for gases it is air at room temperature (20°C / 68° F). Nonetheless, the temperature and pressure must be specified for both the sample and the reference. Pressure is nearly always 1 atm (101.325 kPa).A US Navy Aviation Boatswain's Mate tests the specific gravity of JP-5 fuelTemperatures for both sample and reference vary from industry to industry
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Femtogram
To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10−40 kg and 1053 kg.Contents1 Units of mass1.1 Other units 1.2 Below 10−24 kg 1.3 10−24 to 10−19 kg 1.4 10−18 to 10−13 kg 1.5 10−12 to 10−7 kg 1.6 10×10−6 to 1 kg 1.7 1 kg to 105 kg 1.8 106 to 1011 kg 1.9 1012 to 1017 kg 1.10 1018 to 1023 kg 1.11 1024 to 1029 kg 1.12 1030 to 1035 kg 1.13 1036 to 1041 kg 1.14 1042 kg and greater2 Notes 3 External linksUnits of mass[edit]SI multiples for gram (g)SubmultiplesMultiplesValue SI symbol Name Value SI symbol Name10−1 g dg decigram 101 g dag decagram10−2 g cg centigram 102 g hg hectogram10−3 g mg milligram 103 g kg kilogram10−6 g µg microgram (mcg) 106 g Mg megagram (tonne)10−9 g ng nanogram 109 g Gg gigagram10−12 g pg picogram 1012 g Tg teragram10−15 g fg femtogram 1015 g Pg petagram10
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Czech Republic
The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(/ˈtʃɛk rɪˈpʌblɪk/ ( listen)[10] Czech: Česká republika, Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka] ( listen)),[11] also known as Czechia[12] (/ˈtʃɛkiə/ ( listen); Czech: Česko, pronounced [ˈtʃɛsko] ( listen)), is a landlocked country in Central Europe
Europe
bordered by Germany
Germany
to the west, Austria
Austria
to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland
Poland
to the northeast.[13] The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.6 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents
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Johanngeorgenstadt
Johanngeorgenstadt
Johanngeorgenstadt
is a mining town in Saxony’s Ore Mountains, 17 km south of Aue, and 27 km northwest of Karlovy Vary. It lies in the district of Erzgebirgskreis, on the border with the Czech Republic, is a state-recognized health resort (Erholungsort), and calls itself Stadt des Schwibbogens (“ Schwibbogen
Schwibbogen
Town”)
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Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Martin Heinrich Klaproth
(1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798).Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Klaproth was born in Wernigerode. During a large portion of his life he followed the profession of an apothecary. After acting as assistant in pharmacies at Quedlinburg, Hanover, Berlin
Berlin
and Danzig
Danzig
successively he came to Berlin
Berlin
on the death of Valentin Rose the Elder in 1771 as manager of his business, and in 1780 he started an establishment on his own account in the same city, where from 1782 he was pharmaceutical assessor of the Ober-Collegium Medicum
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Marie Curie
Marie Skłodowska Curie (/ˈkjʊəri/;[3] French: [kyʁi]; Polish: [kʲiˈri]; born Maria Salomea Skłodowska [ˈmarja salɔˈmɛa skwɔˈdɔfska]; 7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to win twice, the only person to win a Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in two different sciences, and was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon
Panthéon
in Paris. She was born in Warsaw, in what was then the Kingdom of Poland, part of the Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaw's clandestine Flying University and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw
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