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Upper Austria
Upper Austria
Austria
(German: Oberösterreich, pronounced [ˈoːbɐˌʔøːstɐʀaɪ̯ç] ( listen); Austro-Bavarian: Obaöstarreich; Czech: Horní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria. Its capital is Linz. Upper Austria
Austria
borders on Germany
Germany
and the Czech Republic, as well as on the other Austrian states of Lower Austria, Styria, and Salzburg
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Bezirk
The German term Bezirk (plural Bezirke, derived from Latin: circulus, "circle") translated as "district" can refer to the following types of administrative divisions:Stadtbezirk, a subdivision of a city in the sense of a borough (e.g. in Berlin, Hamburg or Vienna), often again subdivided into several quarters and neighbourhoods. According to German Gemeindeordnung codes, the city council resolves upon the implementation by municipal by-law (Satzung). In some cities the Bezirke have limited powers delegated to them by the city's local government, including an assembly resulting from local elections and an own 'mayor' (Bürgermeister). In the German states of Hesse
Hesse
and Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
any municipality is authorized to implement Ortsbezirke with own advisory councils and local administrators
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Counter-Reformation
The Counter- Reformation
Reformation
(Latin: Contrareformatio), also called the Catholic Reformation
Reformation
(Latin: Reformatio Catholica) or the Catholic Revival,[1] was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648)
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Duchy Of Styria
The Duchy of Styria
Styria
(German: Herzogtum Steiermark; Slovene: Vojvodina Štajerska; Hungarian: Stájer Hercegség) was a duchy located in modern-day southern Austria
Austria
and northern Slovenia. It was a part of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
until its dissolution in 1806 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary
Austria–Hungary
until its dissolution in 1918.Contents1 History 2 Demographics 3 Dukes3.1 Various dynasties 3.2 House of Habsburg4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] It was created by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa
Frederick Barbarossa
in 1180 when he raised the March of Styria
March of Styria
to a duchy of equal rank with neighbouring Carinthia and Bavaria, after the fall of the Bavarian duke Henry the Lion earlier that year
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[7][8][9] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
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Duchy Of Bavaria
The Duchy of Bavaria
Bavaria
(German: Herzogtum Bayern) was, from the sixth through the eighth century, a frontier region in the southeastern part of the Merovingian
Merovingian
kingdom. It was settled by Bavarian tribes and ruled by dukes (duces) under Frankish overlordship. A new duchy was created from this area during the decline of the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
in the late ninth century. It became one of the stem duchies of the East Frankish realm which evolved as the Kingdom of Germany
Kingdom of Germany
and the Holy Roman Empire. During internal struggles of the ruling Ottonian dynasty, the Bavarian territory was considerably diminished by the separation of the newly established Duchy of Carinthia
Duchy of Carinthia
in 976. Between 1070 and 1180 the Holy Roman Emperors were again strongly opposed by Bavaria, especially by the ducal House of Welf
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Principality
A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.Contents1 Terminology 2 European2.1 Development 2.2 Consolidation 2.3 Nationalism 2.4 Ecclesiastical principalities3 Asia 4 Other principalities4.1 Other 4.2 Micronational principalities5 See also 6 References 7 Sources and referencesTerminology[edit] Most of these states have historically been a polity, but in some occasions were rather territories in respect of which a princely title is held. The prince's estate and wealth may be located mainly or wholly outside the geographical confines of the principality. Generally recognised surviving sovereign principalities are Liechtenstein, Monaco, and the co-principality of Andorra. Extant royal primogenitures styled as principalities include Asturias (Spain)
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Protestantism
Protestantism
Protestantism
is the second largest form of Christianity
Christianity
with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.[1][2][3][a] It originated with the Reformation,[b] a movement against what its followers con
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Crown Of Bohemia
Crown lands of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
(1526-1804), of the Austrian Empire

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Czech Republic
The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(/ˈtʃɛk rɪˈpʌblɪk/ ( listen)[10] Czech: Česká republika, Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka] ( listen)),[11] also known as Czechia[12] (/ˈtʃɛkiə/ ( listen); Czech: Česko, pronounced [ˈtʃɛsko] ( listen)), is a landlocked country in Central Europe
Europe
bordered by Germany
Germany
to the west, Austria
Austria
to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland
Poland
to the northeast.[13] The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.6 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Czech Language
Czech (/tʃɛk/; čeština Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛʃcɪna]), historically also Bohemian[6] (/boʊˈhiːmiən, bə-/;[7] lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language
West Slavic language
of the Czech–Slovak group.[6] Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree.[8] Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin[9] and German.[10] The Czech–Slovak group developed within West Slavic
West Slavic
in the high medieval period, and the standardization of Czech and Slovak within the Czech–Slovak dialect continuum emerged in the early modern period
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Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576), a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from 1564 until his death. He was crowned King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
in Prague
Prague
on 14 May 1562 and elected King of Germany
King of Germany
(King of the Romans) on 24 November 1562. On 8 September 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia in the Hungarian capital Pressburg (Pozsony in Hungarian; now Bratislava, Slovakia). On 25 July 1564 he succeeded his father Ferdinand I as ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.[1][2] Maximilian's rule was shaped by the confessionalization process after the 1555 Peace of Augsburg. Though a Habsburg
Habsburg
and a Catholic, he approached the Lutheran Imperial estates with a view to overcome the denominational schism, which ultimately failed
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Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor
Rudolf II (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia (as Rudolf I, 1572–1608), King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
(1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608)
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German Tyrol
German Tyrol
German Tyrol
(German: Deutschtirol; Italian: Tirolo tedesco) is a historical region in the Alps
Alps
now divided between Austria
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Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Hitler
(German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ] ( listen); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany
Chancellor of Germany
from 1933 to 1945 and Führer
Führer
("Leader") of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
from 1934 to 1945.[a] As dictator, Hitler
Hitler
initiated World War II
World War II
in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and was central to the Holocaust. Hitler
Hitler
was born in Austria—then part of Austria-Hungary—and was raised near Linz. He moved to Germany
Germany
in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I
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