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Upper Austria
UPPER AUSTRIA (German : Oberösterreich, pronounced ( listen ); Austro-Bavarian : Obaöstarreich; Czech : Horní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria
Austria
. Its capital is Linz
Linz
. Upper Austria
Austria
borders on Germany
Germany
and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, as well as on the other Austrian states of Lower Austria
Austria
, Styria , and Salzburg . With an area of 11,982 km2 (4,626 sq mi) and 1.437 million inhabitants, Upper Austria
Austria
is the fourth-largest Austrian state by land area and the third-largest by population
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Adolf Hitler
ADOLF HITLER (German: ( listen ); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany
Germany
from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
from 1934 to 1945. As dictator , he initiated World War II
World War II
in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and was central to the Holocaust . Hitler
Hitler
was born in Austria, then part of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
, and raised near Linz . He moved to Germany
Germany
in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I
World War I
. He joined the German Workers\' Party (DAP), the precursor of the NSDAP, in 1919 and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921
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Duchy Of Styria
The DUCHY OF STYRIA (German : Herzogtum Steiermark; Slovene : Vojvodina Štajerska; Hungarian : Stájer Hercegség) was a duchy located in modern-day southern Austria and northern Slovenia . It was a part of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary until its dissolution in 1918. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Demographics * 3 Dukes * 3.1 Various dynasties * 3.2 House of Habsburg * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYIt was created by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1180 when he raised the March of Styria to a duchy of equal rank with neighbouring Carinthia and Bavaria , after the fall of the Bavarian duke Henry the Lion earlier that year. Margrave Ottokar IV thereby became the first Duke of Styria and also the last of the ancient Otakar dynasty
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German Tyrol
GERMAN TYROL (German : Deutschtirol; Italian : Tirolo tedesco) is a historical region in the Alps
Alps
now divided between Austria
Austria
and Italy
Italy
. It includes largely ethnic German areas of historical County of Tyrol : the Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East Tyrol ) and the province of South Tyrol
South Tyrol
but not the largely Italian -speaking province of Trentino
Trentino
(formerly Welschtirol )
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Duchy Of Bavaria
The DUCHY OF BAVARIA (German : Herzogtum Bayern) was, from the sixth through the eighth century, a frontier region in the southeastern part of the Merovingian
Merovingian
kingdom. It was settled by Bavarian tribes and ruled by dukes (duces) under Frankish overlordship. A new duchy was created from this area during the decline of the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
in the late ninth century. It became one of the stem duchies of the East Frankish realm which evolved as the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. During internal struggles of the ruling Ottonian dynasty , the Bavarian territory was considerably diminished by the separation of the newly established Duchy of Carinthia in 976. Between 1070 and 1180 the Holy Roman Emperors were again strongly opposed by Bavaria, especially by the ducal House of Welf
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Grande Armée
The GRANDE ARMéE (French pronunciation: ​ ; French for GREAT ARMY) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
. From 1805 to 1809, the Grande Armée
Grande Armée
scored a streak of historic victories that gave the French Empire an unprecedented grip on power over the European continent . Widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest fighting forces ever assembled, it suffered terrible losses during the French invasion of Russia in 1812 and never recovered its tactical superiority after that campaign. It was renamed in 1805 from the army that Napoleon had assembled on the French coast of the English Channel
English Channel
for the proposed invasion of Britain . Napoleon later deployed the army east in order to eliminate the threat of Austria and Russia , which were part of the Third Coalition assembled against France
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Czech Republic
The CZECH REPUBLIC (/ˈtʃɛk rᵻˈpʌblɪk/ ( listen ) CHEK-rə-PUB-lik ; Czech : Česká republika, Czech pronunciation: ( listen )), also known as CZECHIA (/ˈtʃɛkiə/ ( listen ), CHEK-ee-ə ; Czech : Česko, pronounced ( listen )), is a nation state in Central Europe
Europe
bordered by Germany
Germany
to the west, Austria
Austria
to the south, Slovakia
Slovakia
to the east and Poland
Poland
to the northeast. The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate . It is a unitary parliamentary republic , has 10.5 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague
Prague
, with over 1.2 million residents
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Napoleonic Wars
Overall Coalition victory Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
* Fall of the First French Empire
First French Empire
* Exile of Napoleon I
Napoleon I
to St. Helena
St

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Holy Roman Empire
The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ( Latin
Latin
: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German : Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Central Europe
Central Europe
that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany , though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
, the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , and numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as Emperor , reviving the title in Western Europe
Western Europe
, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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Principality
A PRINCIPALITY (or PRINCEDOM) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state , ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 European principalities * 2.1 Development * 2.2 Consolidation * 2.3 Nationalism
Nationalism
* 2.4 Ecclesiastical principalities * 3 Other principalities * 3.1 Non-European and Colonial world * 3.2 Micronational principalities * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources and references TERMINOLOGYMost of these states have historically been a polity , but in some occasions were rather territories in respect of which a princely title is held. The prince's estate and wealth may be located mainly or wholly outside the geographical confines of the principality
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Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor
RUDOLF II (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia (as RUDOLF I, 1572–1608), King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
(1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608). He was a member of the House of Habsburg . Rudolf's legacy has traditionally been viewed in three ways: an ineffectual ruler whose mistakes led directly to the Thirty Years\' War ; a great and influential patron of Northern Mannerist art; and an intellectual devotee of occult arts and learning which helped seed what would be called the scientific revolution
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Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor
MATTHIAS (24 February 1557 – 20 March 1619) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1608 (as MATTHIAS II) and King of Bohemia from 1611. He was a member of the House of Habsburg . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Names * 3 Ancestry * 4 Titles * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYMatthias was born in the Austrian capital of Vienna to Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria of Spain . Matthias married Archduchess Anna of Austria , daughter of his uncle Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria, whose successor in Further Austria Matthias became in 1595. Their marriage did not produce surviving children. In 1578, Matthias was invited to the Netherlands by the States- General of the rebellious provinces, who offered him the position of Governor-General
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Counter-Reformation
The COUNTER-REFORMATION ( Latin
Latin
: Contrareformatio), also called the CATHOLIC REFORMATION (Latin: Reformatio Catholica) or the CATHOLIC REVIVAL, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years\' War (1648)
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Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor
MAXIMILIAN II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576), a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg , was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from 1564 until his death. He was crowned King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
in Prague
Prague
on 14 May 1562 and elected King of Germany
King of Germany
( King of the Romans
King of the Romans
) on 24 November 1562. On 8 September 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia in the Hungarian capital Pressburg (Pozsony in Hungarian; now Bratislava, Slovakia). On 25 July 1564 he succeeded his father Ferdinand I as ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. Maximilian's rule was shaped by the confessionalization process after the 1555 Peace of Augsburg
Peace of Augsburg

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Protestantism
PROTESTANTISM is the second largest form of Christianity
Christianity
with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians
Christians
. It originated with the Reformation , a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. Ever since, Protestants reject the Roman Catholic
Catholic
doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments , but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist
Eucharist
. They emphasize the priesthood of all believers , justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than by good works , and the highest authority of the Bible
Bible
alone (rather than with sacred tradition ) in faith and morals (sola scriptura )
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Crown Of Bohemia
Crown lands of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
(from 1526), of the Austrian Empire
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