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Unix-like
A Unix-like
Unix-like
(sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix
Unix
system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX
UNIX
Specification. A Unix-like
Unix-like
application is one that behaves like the corresponding Unix
Unix
command or shell
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Proprietary Software
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code,[1] but sometimes patent rights.[2]Contents1 Software becoming proprietary 2 Legal basis2.1 Limitations3 Exclusive rights3.1 Use of the software 3.2 Inspection and modification of source code 3.3 Redistribution4 Interoperability with software and hardware4.1 Proprietary file formats and protocols 4.2 Proprietary APIs 4.3 Vendor lock-in 4.4 Software limited to certain hardware configurations5 Abandonment by owners 6 Formerly open-source software 7 Pricing and economics 8 Examples 9 See also 10 ReferencesSoftware becoming proprietary[edit] Until the late 1960s computers—large and expensive mainframe co
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Xinu
Xinu Is Not Unix (Xinu, a recursive acronym), is an operating system for embedded systems,[2] originally developed by Douglas Comer for educational use at Purdue University in the 1980s. The name is both recursive, and is Unix spelled backwards. It has been ported to many hardware platforms, including the DEC PDP-11 and VAX systems, Sun-2 and Sun-3 workstations, Intel x86, PowerPC G3 and MIPS. Xinu was also used for some models of Lexmark printers.[2] Despite its name suggesting some similarity to Unix, Xinu is a different type of operating system, written with no knowledge of the Unix source code, or compatibility goals. It uses different abstractions, and system calls, some with names matching those of Unix, but different semantics.[2]Contents1 History 2 Later developments 3 Embedded Xinu 4 University of Mississippi Embedded Xinu Laboratory 5 Nexos Project 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Xinu first ran on the LSI-11 platform
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AT&T Corporation
AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet
Internet
telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies. During its long history, AT&T was at times the world's largest telephone company, the world's largest cable television operator, and a regulated monopoly. At its peak in the 1950s and 1960s, it employed one million people and its revenue was roughly $3 billion annually. In 2005, AT&T was purchased by Baby Bell
Baby Bell
and former subsidiary SBC Communications for more than $16 billion ($20 billion in present-day terms[1])
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De Facto
In law and government, de facto (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ/ or /di ˈfæktoʊ/[1]; Latin: de facto, "in fact"; Latin pronunciation: [deː ˈfaktoː]), describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.[2][3][4] It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law
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Eric S. Raymond
Eric Steven Raymond (born December 4, 1957), often referred to as ESR, is an American software developer, author of the widely cited[2] 1997 essay and 1999 book The Cathedral and the Bazaar and other works, and open-source software advocate. He wrote a guidebook for the Roguelike game NetHack.[3] In the 1990s, he edited and updated the Jargon File, currently in print as The New Hacker's Dictionary.[4]Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Views on open source 4 Political beliefs and activism 5 Personal life 6 Bibliography6.1 By Eric Raymond6.1.1 Books 6.1.2 Writings posted or archived on his website7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEarly life[edit] Raymond was born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1957 and lived in Venezuela as a child
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Genericized Trademark
A generic trademark, also known as a genericized trademark or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name that, due to its popularity or significance, has become the generic name for, or synonymous with, a general class of product or service, usually against the intentions of the trademark's holder. The process of a product's name becoming genericized is known as genericide.[1] A trademark is said to become genericized when it begins as a distinctive product identifier but changes in meaning to become generic. This typically happens when the products or services with which the trademark is associated have acquired substantial market dominance or mind share, such that the primary meaning of the genericized trademark becomes the product or service itself rather than an indication of source for the product or service
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Certification Mark
A certification mark (or conformity mark) on a commercial product indicates the existence of an accepted product standard or regulation and a claim that the manufacturer has verified compliance with those standards or regulations. The specific specification, test methods, and frequency of testing are published by the standards organization. Certification listing
Certification listing
does not necessarily guarantee fitness for use.Contents1 Certification marks distinguished from other marks 2 Regulations 3 Examples 4 International treaties and certification marks 5 Cases 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksCertification marks distinguished from other marks[edit] Certification marks differ from collective trade marks
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Trademark
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark[1] is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others,[2][3] although trademarks used to identify services are usually called service marks.[4][5] The trademark owner can be an individual, business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a package, a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are often displayed on company buildings. The first legislative act concerning trademarks was passed by the Parliament of England
Parliament of England
in 1266 under the reign of Henry III, requiring all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857
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AT&T
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower
Whitacre Tower
in Downtown Dallas, Texas.[8] AT&T is the world's largest telecommunications company. AT&T is also the second largest provider of mobile telephone services and the largest provider of fixed telephone services in the United States. AT&T Inc. began its history as Southwestern Bell
Southwestern Bell
Telephone Company, which was a subsidiary of the Bell Telephone
Telephone
Company founded by Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
in 1880. Bell Telephone
Telephone
Company evolved into American Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company in 1885 which had since rebranded to AT&T Corporation
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The Open Group
The Open Group is an industry consortium that seeks to "enable the achievement of business objectives" by developing "open, vendor-neutral technology standards and certifications". It has over 580 members and provides a number of services, including strategy, management, innovation and research, standards, certification, and test development.[1] It was established in 1996 when X/Open merged with the Open Software Foundation. The Open Group is the certifying body for the UNIX
UNIX
trademark,[2] and publishes the Single UNIX
UNIX
Specification technical standard,[3] which extends the POSIX standards
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Software License
A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software. Under United States copyright law all software is copyright protected, in source code as also object code form.[2] The only exception is software in the public domain. A typical software license grants the licensee, typically an end-user, permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law.Contents1 Software
Software
licenses and copyright law1.1 Ownership vs
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Bell Labs
Nokia
Nokia
Bell Labs
Bell Labs
(formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone
Telephone
Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia. Its headquarters are located in Murray Hill, New Jersey, in addition to other laboratories around the rest of the United States
United States
and in other countries. The historic laboratory originated in the late 19th century as the Volta Laboratory and Bureau
Volta Laboratory and Bureau
created by Alexander Graham Bell
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Free And Open-source Software
Free and open-source software
Free and open-source software
(FOSS) is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software.[a] That is, anyone is freely licensed to use, copy, study, and change the software in any way, and the source code is openly shared so that people are encouraged to voluntarily improve the design of the software.[3] This is in contrast to proprietary software, where the software is under restrictive copyright and the source code is usually hidden from the users. The benefits of using FOSS can include decreased software costs, increased security and stability (especially in regard to malware), protecting privacy, education, and giving users more control over their own hardware. Free, open-source operating systems such as Linux and descendants of BSD
BSD
are widely utilized today, powering millions of servers, desktops, smartphones (e.g
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Technical Standard
A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes and practices. In contrast, a custom, convention, company product, corporate standard, and so forth that becomes generally accepted and dominant is often called a de facto standard. A technical standard may be developed privately or unilaterally, for example by a corporation, regulatory body, military, etc. Standards can also be developed by groups such as trade unions, and trade associations. Standards organizations
Standards organizations
often have more diverse input and usually develop voluntary standards: these might become mandatory if adopted by a government (i.e
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Open Group
The Open Group is an industry consortium that seeks to "enable the achievement of business objectives" by developing "open, vendor-neutral technology standards and certifications". It has over 580 members and provides a number of services, including strategy, management, innovation and research, standards, certification, and test development.[1] It was established in 1996 when X/Open merged with the Open Software Foundation. The Open Group is the certifying body for the UNIX trademark,[2] and publishes the Single UNIX Specification technical standard,[3] which extends the POSIX standards. The Open Group also develops and manages the TOGAF standard, which is an industry standard enterprise architecture framework.[4] The over 580 members include a range of IT buyers and vendors as well as government agencies, including, for example, Capgemini, Fujitsu, Oracle, HPE, Orbus Software, IBM, Huawei, Philips, U.S
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