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University Of Cambridge ESOL Examination
CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT is part of the University of Cambridge
Cambridge
and has been providing English language
English language
assessments and qualifications for over 100 years. Cambridge
Cambridge
English exams are taken by over 5 million people each year. The organisation contributed to the development of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) and its examinations are aligned with the CEFR levels. In 2010, Cambridge
Cambridge
English Language Assessment and the English Language Institute Testing and Certificate Division of the University of Michigan agreed to form a not-for-profit collaboration known as CaMLA
CaMLA
( Cambridge
Cambridge
Michigan Language Assessments). This brings together two institutions with a long history of language assessment
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Woman’s Hour
WOMAN\'S HOUR is a radio magazine programme broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in the United Kingdom . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 Schedule * 4 Music * 5 Feminism * 6 Awards and nominations * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYCreated by Norman Collins and originally presented by Alan Ivimey , Woman's Hour was first broadcast on 7 October 1946 on the BBC 's Light Programme (now called Radio 2 ). Janet Quigley , who was also involved with the birth of the UK radio programme Today , has been credited with "virtually creating" the programme. The programme was transferred to its current home in 1973. Over the years it has been presented by Joan Griffiths , Violet Carson , Olive Shapley , Jean Metcalfe (1947, 1958), Marjorie Anderson (until 1972), Judith Chalmers (1966–1970), Sue MacGregor (1972–1987), Jenni Murray (since 1987), Martha Kearney (1998 to March 2007), and Jane Garvey (since 8 October 2007)
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World Service
INTERNET SCHEDULE LIVE STREAMING * Web Player stream * HTTP stream (48 Kbps MP3) * HLS stream (48 Kbps AAC+) * HLS stream (96 Kbps AAC+) * DASH stream (48 Kbps AAC+)ENGLISH NEWS LIVE STREAMING * HTTP stream (48 Kbps MP3)AFRICA LIVE STREAMING * HTTP stream (48 Kbps MP3) OFFICIAL WEBSITE bbc.com/worldserviceradioThe BBC WORLD SERVICE, the world's largest international broadcaster , broadcasts radio and television news , speech and discussions in 29 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming , podcasting , satellite , DAB , FM and MW relays. It was announced in November 2015 that the BBC World Service will start broadcasting in Pidgin and Yoruba in Nigeria, which will bring the total number of broadcast languages to 31. In November 2016 the BBC announced again that it would start broadcasting in additional languages including Amharic and Igbo , in its biggest expansion since the 1940s
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International English Language Testing System
Standardised test. Available in 2 modules: "Academic", "General training". The IELTS test partners also offer IELTS Life Skills , a speaking and listening test used for UK Visas and Immigration . DEVELOPER / ADMINISTRATOR British Council , IDP Education , Cambridge English Language Assessment . KNOWLEDGE / SKILLS TESTED Listening, reading, writing and speaking of the English language . PURPOSE To assess the English language proficiency of non-native English speakers. DURATION Listening: 40 minutes (including the 10-minute transfer time), Reading: 60 minutes, Writing: 60 minutes, Speaking: 11–14 minutes. Total: 2 hours, 55 minutes. SCORE / GRADE RANGE 0 to 9, in 0.5 band increments. SCORE / GRADE VALIDITY 2 years OFFERED Up to 4 times a month. Up to 48 times a year. COUNTRIES / REGIONS More than 1,100 test centres in over 140 countries. LANGUAGES English ANNUAL NUMBER OF TEST TAKERS Over 2.5 million in 2014
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Rasch Model
The RASCH MODEL, named after Georg Rasch , is a psychometric model for analyzing categorical data , such as answers to questions on a reading assessment or questionnaire responses, as a function of the trade-off between (a) the respondent's abilities, attitudes or personality traits and (b) the item difficulty. For example, they may be used to estimate a student's reading ability, or the extremity of a person's attitude to capital punishment from responses on a questionnaire. In addition to psychometrics and educational research, the Rasch model and its extensions are used in other areas, including the health profession and market research because of their general applicability. The mathematical theory underlying Rasch models is a special case of item response theory and, more generally, a special case of a generalized linear model
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Royal Society Of Arts
THE ROYAL SOCIETY FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF ARTS, MANUFACTURES AND COMMERCE (RSA) is a London
London
-based, British organisation committed to finding practical solutions to social challenges. Founded in 1754 by William Shipley
William Shipley
as the SOCIETY FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF ARTS, MANUFACTURE AND COMMERCE, it was granted a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1847, and the right to use the term Royal in its name by King Edward VII in 1908. The shorter version, THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF ARTS and the related RSA acronym, are used more frequently than the full name
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BBC
The BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster . Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
in London
London
and it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total, 16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time, flexible, and fixed-contract staff are included. The BBC
BBC
is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee which is charged to all British households, companies, and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up
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Council Of Europe
The COUNCIL OF EUROPE (COE; French : Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights , democracy , rule of law in Europe
Europe
and promote European culture . Founded in 1949, it has 47 member states, covers approximately 820 million people and operates with an annual budget of approximately half a billion euros . The organisation is distinct from the 28-nation European Union
European Union
(EU), although it is sometimes confused with it, partly because the EU has adopted the original European Flag which was created by the Council of Europe
Europe
in 1955, as well as the European Anthem . No country has ever joined the EU without first belonging to the Council of Europe. The Council of Europe
Europe
is an official United Nations
United Nations
Observer
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University Of Oxford
Coordinates : 51°45′40″N 1°15′12″W / 51.7611°N 1.2534°W / 51.7611; -1.2534 University of Oxford
Oxford
Coat of arms Latin
Latin
: Universitas Oxoniensis MOTTO Dominus Illuminatio Mea ( Latin
Latin
) MOTTO IN ENGLISH "The Lord is my Light " ESTABLISHED c. 1096; 922 years ago (1096) ENDOWMENT £ 5.069 billion (inc
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English Literature
This article is focused on ENGLISH-LANGUAGE LITERATURE rather than the literature of England
England
, so that it includes writers from Scotland , Wales
Wales
, and the whole of Ireland
Ireland
, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire
British Empire
, including the United States . However, until the early 19th century, it only deals with the literature of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Ireland
Ireland
. It does not include literature written in the other languages of Britain . The English language
English language
has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years
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Phonetics
PHONETICS (pronounced /fəˈnɛtɪks/ , from the Greek : φωνή, phōnē, 'sound, voice') is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech , or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones ): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status. Phonology
Phonology
, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs. The field of phonetics is a multilayered subject of linguistics that focuses on speech
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British Council
The BRITISH COUNCIL is a British organisation specialising in international cultural and educational opportunities. It works in over 100 countries: promoting a wider knowledge of the UK and the English language; encouraging cultural, scientific, technological and educational co-operation with the UK; and changing people’s lives through access to UK education, skills, qualifications, culture and society. The British Council
British Council
is a charity registered in England and Wales
England and Wales
and Scotland and is governed by Royal Charter
Royal Charter
. It is also a public corporation and an executive nondepartmental public body (NDPB), sponsored by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Foreign and Commonwealth Office
. Its headquarters are off Trafalgar Square, London
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Cambridge English Scale
THE CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH SCALE is a single range of scores used to report results for Cambridge English Language Assessment exams. It was introduced in January 2015, with Cambridge English Scale scores replacing the standardised score and candidate profile used for exams taken pre-2015. The scale aims to provide exam users with more detailed information about their exam performance than was previously available. From January 2015, results for Cambridge English: First (FCE) , Cambridge English: First for Schools (FCE) , Cambridge English: Advanced (CAE) and Cambridge English: Proficiency (CPE) bean reporting on the scale. From February 2016 Cambridge English: Key (KET) and Key for Schools, Cambridge English: Preliminary (PET) and Preliminary for Schools, and Cambridge English: Business Certificates (BEC) have reported on the scale. IELTS is mapped to the Cambridge English Scale, but will continue to use its existing nine-band scale for reporting results
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Cambridge University Press
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII
Henry VIII
in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world (after Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
). It also holds letters patent as the Queen\'s Printer . The Press's mission is "To further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence." Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge
Cambridge
and is both an academic and educational publisher . With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40 countries , it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries
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Examination For The Certificate Of Proficiency In English
The EXAMINATION FOR THE CERTIFICATE IN PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH (ECPE) is an advanced level English language qualification that focuses on Level C2 of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) . It is developed by CaMLA , a not-for-profit collaboration between the University of Michigan and the University of Cambridge . The exam has been in use since 1953, but is regularly updated to ensure it reflects current research in language teaching and assessment. The ECPE is taken by school-aged and adult learners living in countries where the common language is not English. It is used as official documentary evidence of English language proficiency. Results (issued in the last two years) are accepted by universities, governments and employers around the world. The exam has four test sections, which test the four key language skills: listening, reading, writing and speaking
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MELAB
The MICHIGAN ENGLISH LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT BATTERY (or MELAB) is a standardized test , created by CaMLA , which evaluates proficiency in understanding, writing and speaking the English language. It is designed for adults whose first language is not English, and is often used as a university admission criterion to judge whether applicants are sufficiently fluent to follow an English-language study program at a university level
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