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Universal Monarchy
A Universal Monarchy
Monarchy
is a concept and a political situation where one monarchy is deemed to have either sole rule over everywhere (or at least the predominant part of a geopolitical area or areas) or to have a special supremacy over all other states (or at least all the states in a geopolitical area or areas).Contents1 Concept 2 History2.1 Europe 2.2 Asia3 ReferencesConcept[edit] Universal Monarchy
Monarchy
is differentiated from ordinary monarchy in that a Universal Monarchy
Monarchy
is beholden to no other state and asserts a degree of total sovereignty over an area, or predominance over other states. The concept has arisen in Europe
Europe
and Asia. The concept is linked to that of Empire, but implies more than simply possessing imperium. The Latin phrase Dominus Mundi, Lord of the World, encapsulates the concept
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First French Empire
French Revolutionary Wars •  Constitution adopted 18 May 1804 •  Coronation of Napoleon
Napoleon
I 2 December 1804 •  Treaty of Tilsit 7 July 1807 •  Invasion of Russia 24 June 1812 •  Treaty of Fontainebleau 11 April 1814 •  Hundred Days 20 March – 7 July 1815Area •  1812 [4] 860,000 km2 (330,000 sq mi)Population •  1812 est. 44,000,000 Currency French francPreceded by Succeeded byFrench First Republic
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Italian Unification
Timeline Italy
Italy
portalv t e Italian unification
Italian unification
(Italian: Unità d'Italia [uniˈta ddiˈtaːlja]), or the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
([risordʒiˈmento], meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula
Italian peninsula
into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
in the 19th century
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Liberal Wars
Liberal victory, Concession of Evoramonte:Constitutional monarchy is restored. Dom Miguel renounces all his claims to the throne and goes into exile.Belligerents Liberals Supported by: United Kingdom Brazil France
France
(from 1830) Belgian volunteers (from 1832)[1] Spain
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Meiji Restoration
The Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
(明治維新, Meiji Ishin), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although there were ruling Emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan.[2] The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new Emperor in the Charter Oath
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Trienio Liberal
The Trienio Liberal
Trienio Liberal
(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈtɾjenjo liβeˈɾal], "Liberal Triennium") is a period of 3 years in the modern history of Spain between 1820 and 1823, when a liberal government ruled Spain after a military uprising in January 1820 by the lieutenant-colonel Rafael de Riego
Rafael de Riego
against the absolutist rule of King Ferdinand VII. It ended in 1823 when, with the approval of the crowned heads of Europe, a French army invaded Spain and reinstated the King's absolute power. This invasion is known in France
France
as the "Spanish Expedition" (expédition d’Espagne), and in Spain as "The Hundred Thousand Sons of St
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Unification Of Germany
The unification of Germany
Germany
into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors
Hall of Mirrors
at the Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
in France. Princes of the German states, excluding Austria, gathered there to proclaim Wilhelm I of Prussia
Prussia
as German Emperor after the French capitulation in the Franco-Prussian War
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5 October 1910 Revolution
Republican victoryAbolition of the monarchy and proclamation of the republic. King Manuel II is exiled and flees to Britain.Belligerents Kingdom of Portugal Portuguese republicansCommanders and leaders King Manuel II Teixeira de Sousa Paiva Couceiro Teófilo Braga Afonso Costa Manuel de Arriaga José RelvasStrengthAbout 7,000 men About 2,000 revolutionaries 3 cruisersCasualties and lossesAt least 37 dead and dozens wounded, with at least 14 of them dying in the following days.The establishment of the Portuguese Republic was the result of a coup d'état organised by the Portuguese Republican Party which, on 5 October 1910, deposed the constitutional monarchy and established a republican regime in Portugal
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Rise Of The Ottoman Empire
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in c. 1299, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
on May 29, 1453. This period witnessed the foundation of a political entity ruled by the Ottoman Dynasty
Ottoman Dynasty
in the northwestern Anatolian region of Bithynia, and its transformation from a small principality on the Byzantine
Byzantine
frontier into an empire spanning the Balkans
Balkans
and Anatolia. For this reason, this period in the empire's history has been described as the Proto-Imperial Era.[1] Throughout most of this period, the Ottomans were merely one of many competing states in the region, and relied upon the support of local warlords and vassals to maintain control over their realm
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Proclamation Of The Republic (Brazil)
The Proclamation of the Republic (Portuguese: Proclamação da República do Brasil) was a military coup d'état that established the First Brazilian Republic
First Brazilian Republic
on November 15, 1889
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Xinhai Revolution
Chinese Revolutionary Alliance victory Abdication
Abdication
of Puyi Fall of the Qing dynasty End of Imperial China Establishment of the Republic of China Destabilization of ChinaBelligerents Qing dynasty Provisional Government of the Republic of China Hubei
Hubei
Military Government of the Republic of China Tongmenghui Gelaohui Tiandihui Various other revolutionary groups and forces Regional officials and warlordsCommanders and leaders Empress Dowager Longyu Prince-Regent Zaifeng Prime Minister Yuan Shikai Feng Guozhang Ma Anliang Duan Qirui Yang Zengxin Ma Qi Various other nobles of the Qing dynasty Prov. President Sun Yat-sen General Huang Xing Song Jiaoren Chen Qimei Prov. Vice President Li Yuanhong Prov
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Russian Revolution
The Russian Revolution
Revolution
was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy
Tsarist autocracy
and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar
Julian calendar
was in use in Russia at the time). Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies (called 'soviets') which contended for authority
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Siamese Revolution Of 1932
The Siamese revolution of 1932
Siamese revolution of 1932
or the Siamese coup d'état of 1932 (Thai: การปฏิวัติสยาม พ.ศ. 2475 or การเปลี่ยนแปลงการปกครองสยาม พ.ศ. 2475) was a crucial turning point in 20th-century Thai history. The revolution, a coup d'état, was a nearly bloodless transition on 24 June 1932, which changed the system of government in Siam
Siam
from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. The "revolution" was brought about by a comparatively small group of military and civilians, who formed Siam's first political party, the Khana Ratsadon
Khana Ratsadon
(Peoples' Party). It ended 150 years of absolutism under the Chakri Dynasty
Chakri Dynasty
and almost 800 years of absolute rule of kings over Thai history
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Legalism (Chinese Philosophy)
Huang-LaoHuangdi Sijing HuainanziEarly figuresGuan Zhong Zichan Deng Xi Li Kui Wu QiFounding figuresShen Buhai Duke Xiao of Qin Shang Yang Shen Dao Zhang Yi Xun Kuang Han Fei Li Si Qin Shi HuangHan figuresJia Yi Liu An Emperor Wen of Han Emperor Wu of Han Chao Cuo Gongsun Hong Zhang Tang Huan Tan Wang Fu Zhuge LiangLater figuresEmperor Wen of Sui Du You Wang Anshi Li Shanchang Zhang Juzheng Xu Guangqiv t eFajiia (Chinese: 法家; pinyin: Fǎjiā)[2] or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.[3] Roughly meaning "house of Fa" (administrative "methods" or "standards"),[4] the "school" (term) represents some several branches of realistic statesmen[5] or "men of methods" (fashu zishi)[6] foundational for the traditional Chinese bureaucratic empire.[7] Compared with Machiavelli,[8] it has often been considered in the Western world as akin to the Realpolitikal thought of
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Spanish Transition To Democracy
The Spanish transition to democracy
Spanish transition to democracy
(Spanish: Transición española a la democracia), known in Spain
Spain
as the Transition (Spanish: La Transición), or the Spanish transition (Spanish: Transición española) is a period of modern Spanish history, that started on 20 November 1975, the date of death of Francisco Franco, who had established a military dictatorship after the victory of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. However, historians disagree on the exact date the transition completed:[1] some say it ended after the 1977 general election; while others place it later, when the 1978 Constitution was approved. Others suggest it ended with the failure of the 1981 coup d'êtat attempt
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Modern Cambodia
After the fall of the Pol Pot
Pol Pot
regime of Democratic Kampuchea, Cambodia was under Vietnamese occupation and a pro- Hanoi
Hanoi
government, the People's Republic of Kampuchea
People's Republic of Kampuchea
was established
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