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United States Mint
The United States Mint is a bureau of the Department of the Treasury responsible for producing coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion.[1] It does not produce paper money; that responsibility belongs to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. The Mint was created in Philadelphia in 1792, and soon joined by other centers, whose coins were identified by their own mint marks. There are currently four active coin-producing mints: Philadelphia, Denver, San Francisco, and West Point. The Massachusetts Bay Colony established a mint in Boston in 1652. John Hull was Treasurer and mintmaster; Hull's partner at the "Hull Mint" was Robert Sanderson
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Refining
Refining (also perhaps called by the mathematical term affining) is the process of purification of a (1) substance or a (2) form. The term is usually used of a natural resource that is almost in a usable form, but which is more useful in its pure form. For instance, most types of natural petroleum will burn straight from the ground, but it will burn poorly and quickly clog an engine with residues and by-products. The term is broad, and may include more drastic transformations, such as the reduction of ore to metal (for which see Refining (metallurgy)). The refining of liquids is often accomplished by distillation or fractionation; this process is useful, for example, for isolating different fractions of petroleum. Gases can be refined in this way as well, by being cooled and/or compressed until they liquefy
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Precious Metals
Precious metals are rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value. Chemically, the precious metals tend to be less reactive than most elements (see noble metal). They are usually ductile and have a high lustre. Historically, precious metals were important as currency but are now regarded mainly as investment and industrial commodities. Gold, silver, platinum, and palladium each have an ISO 4217 currency code. The best known precious metals are the coinage metals, which are gold and silver. Although both have industrial uses, they are better known for their uses in art, jewelry, and coinage. Other precious metals include the platinum group metals: ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum, of which platinum is the most widely traded.[1] The demand for precious metals is driven not only by their practical use but also by their role as investments and a store of value
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Philadelphia

Philadelphia was the second of eight American cities to have won titles in all four major leagues (MLB, NFL, NHL and NBA), and also has a title in soccer (from the now-defunct North American Soccer League in the 1970s). The city's professional teams and their fans endured 25 years without a championship, from the 76ers 1983 NBA Finals win[196] until the Phillies 2008 World Series win.[197][198] The lack of championships was sometimes attributed in jest to the Curse of Billy Penn after One Liberty Place became the first building to surpass the height of the William Penn statue on top of City Hall's tower in 1987.[199] After nine years passed without another championship, the Eagles won their first Super Bowl following the Philadelphia Union of Major League Soccer
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Continental Dollar
Early American currency went through several stages of development during the colonial and post-Revolutionary history of the United States. John Hull was authorized by the Massachusetts legislature to make the earliest coinage of the colony, the willow, the oak, and the pine tree shilling in 1652.[1] Since there were few coins minted in the Thirteen Colonies, that later became the United States, foreign coins like the Spanish dollar were widely circulated. Colonial governments, at times, issued paper money to facilitate economic activities
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Congress Of The Confederation

The Congress of the Confederation opened in the last stages of the American Revolution. Combat ended in October 1781, with the surrender of the British after the Siege and Battle of Yorktown. The British, however, continued to occupy New York City, while the American delegates in Paris, named by the Congress, negotiated the terms of peace with Great Britain.[3] Based on preliminary articles with the British negotiators made on November 30, 1782, and approved by the "Congress of the Confederation" on April 15, 1783, the American Revolution. Combat ended in October 1781, with the surrender of the British after the Siege and Battle of Yorktown
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Massachusetts General Court
The Massachusetts General Court (formally styled the General Court of Massachusetts)[3] is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The name "General Court" is a hold-over from the earliest days of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, when the colonial assembly, in addition to making laws, sat as a judicial court of appeals. Before the adoption of the state constitution in 1780, it was called the Great and General Court, but the official title was shortened by John Adams, author of the state constitution. It is a bicameral body. The upper house is the Massachusetts Senate which is composed of 40 members. The lower body, the Massachusetts House of Representatives, has 160 members. (Until 1978, it had 240 members.[4]) It meets in the Massachusetts State House on Beacon Hill in Boston. The current President of the Senate is Karen Spilka, and the Speaker of the House is Robert DeLeo
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Moneyer
 Numismatics portal
A moneyer is a private individual who is officially permitted to mint money. Usually the rights to coin money are bestowed as a concession by a state or government. Moneyers have a long tradition, dating back at least to ancient Greece. They became most prominent in the Roman Republic, and continued into the Empire. In Rome the position of Triumvir Monetalis, held by three people at a time, was a minor magistracy awarded by the Senate, often the first office held by a young politician. Marcus Aurelius is one famous example; John Hull is another with his founding of the Hull Mint for the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Moneyers were not limited to the ancient world
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John Hull (merchant)
Captain John Hull (18 December 1624 – 1 October 1683) was the Treasurer and mintmaster of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Hull was "the earliest scholar who can now be named of Philemon Pormort, whose school, the only one in Boston, the first school of public instruction in Massachusetts " (Boston Latin School).[1] Starting in 1663, Hull was a member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts . First as an Ensign, Lieutenant (1664) and Captain (1671-1678). Hull was born in Market Harborough, Leicestershire, England. He married Judith Quincy (1626–1695), daughter of Judith Pares (d. 1654) and Edmund Quincy, progenitors of the prestigious Quincy family. His nephew, Daniel Quincy (1651–1690) was an apprentice to Hull. Daniel Quincy was great grandfather to Abigail Smith Adams; first Second Lady of the United States and the second First Lady of the United States
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Massachusetts Bay Colony
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The lands of the settlement were in southern New England, with initial settlements on two natural harbors and surrounding land about 15.4 miles (24.8 km) apart—the areas around Salem and Boston. The territory nominally administered by the colony covered much of central New England, including portions of Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, and Connecticut. Territory claimed but never administered by the colonial government extended as far west as the Pacific Ocean
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