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Umayyads
The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt Omayyad,[2] was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
(Arabic: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661
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Muawiya II
Mu‘āwīyya or Muawiyah or Muaawiya (معاوية) is a male Arabic given name of disputed meaning. It was the name of the first Umayyad caliph.[1] Notable bearers of this name include: Muawiyah I (602–680), first Umayyad Caliph
Umayyad Caliph
(r. 661–680) Muawiya II (661–684), third Umayyad Caliph
Umayyad Caliph
(r. 683–684) Mu'awiya ibn Hudayj, Umayyad general and governor Mu'awiya ibn Hisham (died 737), Umayyad prince and general (fl. 725–737) Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya (born 1941), Prime-Minister, then President of MauritaniaPlaces[edit]Mu'awiya, BasmaReferences[edit]^ "Tareekh-ul-Khulafa". Scribd.com. 2010-09-26. Archived from the original on December 5, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-27. External links[edit]Ruling on calling one’s son Mu’aawiyah and mention of some who bore this name "This page or section lists people that share the same given name
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African Romance
African Romance or African Latin is an extinct Romance language that is assumed to have been spoken in the Roman province of Africa by the Roman Africans during the later Roman and early Byzantine Empires and several centuries after the annexation of the region by the Umayyad Caliphate in 696. African Roman is poorly attested as it was mainly a spoken, vernacular language; texts and inscriptions in Roman Africa were written exclusively in Classical Latin
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Muawiya
Mu‘āwīyya or Muawiyah or Muaawiya (معاوية) is a male Arabic given name of disputed meaning. It was the name of the first Umayyad caliph.[1] Notable bearers of this name include: Muawiyah I (602–680), first Umayyad Caliph
Umayyad Caliph
(r. 661–680) Muawiya II (661–684), third Umayyad Caliph
Umayyad Caliph
(r. 683–684) Mu'awiya ibn Hudayj, Umayyad general and governor Mu'awiya ibn Hisham (died 737), Umayyad prince and general (fl. 725–737) Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya (born 1941), Prime-Minister, then President of MauritaniaPlaces[edit]Mu'awiya, BasmaReferences[edit]^ "Tareekh-ul-Khulafa". Scribd.com. 2010-09-26. Archived from the original on December 5, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-27. External links[edit]Ruling on calling one’s son Mu’aawiyah and mention of some who bore this name "This page or section lists people that share the same given name
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Hephthalite Empire
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560. They were based in Bactria and expanded east to the Tarim Basin, west to Sogdia
Sogdia
and south through Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to northern India. They were a tribal confederation and included both nomadic and settled urban communities. They were part of the four major "Hunic" states known collectively as Xionites
Xionites
or "Hunas", being preceded by the Kidarites, and succeeded by the Alchon Huns
Huns
and lastly the Nezak Huns. The Sveta Huna or White Huns
Huns
who invaded northern India
India
are probably the Hephthalites, but the exact relation is not clear. The stronghold of the Hephthalites was Tokharistan on the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush, in what is present-day northeastern Afghanistan
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Ottoman Caliphate
The Ottoman Caliphate, under the Ottoman dynasty
Ottoman dynasty
of the Ottoman Caliphate, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era. During the period of Ottoman growth, Ottoman rulers claimed caliphal authority since Murad I's conquest of Edirne in 1362.[1] Later Selim I, through conquering and unification of Muslim lands, became the defender of the Holy Cities of Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina
which further strengthened the Ottoman claim to caliphate in the Muslim world. The demise of the Ottoman Caliphate
Caliphate
took place because of a slow erosion of power in relation to Western Europe, and because of the end of the Ottoman state in consequence of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the League of Nations mandate
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Sunni Islam
OthersZahiri Awza'i Thawri Laythi Jariri Sunni
Sunni
schools of theologyAsh'ari Maturidi TraditionalistOthers:Mu'tazila Murji'ahContemporary movementsAhl-i Hadith Al-Ahbash Barelvi Deobandi Islamic Modernism Salafi
Salafi
movement WahhabismHoly sitesJerusalem Mecca Medina Mount SinaiListsLiteratureKutub al-Sittah Islam
Islam
portalv t eThis article contains Arabic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols. Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
(/ˈsuːni, ˈsʊni/) is the largest denomination of Islam
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Prakrit Language
The Prakrits (Sanskrit: प्राकृती prākṛta, Shauraseni: pāuda, Jain Prakrit: pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages.[2][3] The Ardhamagadhi (or simply Magadhi) Prakrit, which was used extensively to write the scriptures of Jainism, is often considered to be the definitive form of Prakrit, while others are considered variants thereof. Prakrit
Prakrit
grammarians would give the full grammar of Ardhamagadhi first, and then define the other grammars with relation to it
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Georgian Language
Georgian (ქართული ენა, kartuli ena, pronounced [kʰɑrtʰuli ɛnɑ]) is a Kartvelian language
Kartvelian language
spoken by Georgians
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Sindhi Language
Sindhi /ˈsɪndi/[9] (سنڌي‎, सिन्धी, , ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan language
of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people. It is the official language of the Pakistani province of Sindh.[10][11][12] In India, Sindhi is one of the scheduled languages officially recognized by the central government. Most Sindhi speakers are concentrated in Pakistan
Pakistan
in the Sindh province, and in India, the Kutch
Kutch
region of the state of Gujarat
Gujarat
and in the Ulhasnagar
Ulhasnagar
region of the state of Maharashtra
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Dirham
Dirham, dirhem or dirhm (درهم) was and, in some cases, still is a unit of currency in several Arab states. It was formerly the related unit of mass (the Ottoman dram) in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and old Persian states. The name derives from the ancient Greek currency the drachma.[1]Contents1 Unit of mass 2 History2.1 Dirham
Dirham
in Jewish
Jewish
orthodox law3 Modern-day currency 4 See also 5 ReferencesUnit of mass[edit] The dirham was a unit of weight used across North Africa, the Middle East, and Persia, with varying values. In the late Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(Ottoman Turkish درهم), the standard dirham was 3.207 g;[2] 400 dirhem equal one oka
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Mozarabic
Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus. Mozarabic descends from Late Latin
Late Latin
and early Romance dialects spoken in Hispania
Hispania
from the 5th to the 8th centuries and was spoken until the 13th century when it was displaced, mostly by Castilian (which became modern Spanish).[2] This set of Latin
Latin
dialects came to be called the Mozarabic language
Mozarabic language
by 19th-century Spanish scholars who studied medieval Al-Andalus, though there never was a common language standard. The term is inaccurate, because it refers to the Christians who spoke Andalusi Romance, as a part of the Romance dialectic linguistic continuum in the Iberian Peninsula, but it was also spoken by Jews, and Muslims, as large parts of the population converted to Islam
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Berber Languages
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages[2] (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg
Tuareg
Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ, pronounced [tæmæˈzɪɣt], [θæmæˈzɪɣθ]), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They comprise a group of closely related dialects spoken by the Berbers, who are indigenous to North Africa.[3] The languages were traditionally written with the ancient Libyco-Berber script, which now exists in the form of Tifinagh.[4] Berber is spoken by large populations of Morocco, Algeria
Algeria
and Libya, by smaller populations of Tunisia, northern Mali, western and northern Niger, northern Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
and Mauritania
Mauritania
and in the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
of Egypt
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