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USB
USB, short for Universal Serial Bus, is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices. [3] USB
USB
was designed to standardize the connection of computer peripherals (including keyboards, pointing devices, digital cameras, printers, portable media players, disk drives and network adapters) to personal computers, both to communicate and to supply electric power. It has largely replaced interfaces such as serial ports and parallel ports, and has become commonplace on a wide range of devices
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NEC
NEC
NEC
Corporation (日本電気株式会社, Nippon
Nippon
Denki Kabushiki Gaisha) is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.[2] It provides IT and network solutions to business enterprises, communications services providers and to government agencies, and has also been the biggest PC vendor in Japan
Japan
since the 1980s. The company was known as the Nippon
Nippon
Electric Company, Limited, before rebranding in 1983 as just NEC. Its NEC
NEC
Semiconductors business unit was one of the worldwide top 20 semiconductor sales leaders before merging with Renesas Electronics
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Megabit
The megabit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information. The prefix mega (symbol M) is defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 106 (1 million),[1] and therefore1 megabit = 106bits = 1000000bits = 1000 kilobits.The megabit has the unit symbol Mb or Mbit. The megabit is closely related to the mebibit, a unit multiple derived from the binary prefix mebi (symbol Mi) of the same order of magnitude,[2] which is equal to 220bits = 1048576bits, or approximately 5% larger than the megabit
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Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s. DEC was a leading vendor of computer systems, including computers, software, and peripherals. Their PDP and successor VAX
VAX
products were the most successful of all minicomputers in terms of sales. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq
Compaq
was focused on the enterprise market and had recently purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas where Compaq
Compaq
had less presence. However, Compaq
Compaq
had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, and soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own
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Lucent Technologies
Lucent
Lucent
Technologies, Inc., was an American multinational telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Murray Hill, New Jersey, in the United States
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Philips
Koninklijke Philips
Philips
N.V. (Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch technology company headquartered in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
currently focused in the area of healthcare. It was founded in Eindhoven
Eindhoven
in 1891, by Gerard Philips
Philips
and his father Frederik. It was once one of the largest electronic conglomerates in the world and currently employs around 105,000 people across more than 60 countries.[1] Philips
Philips
is organized into three main divisions: Philips
Philips
Consumer Lifestyle (formerly Philips
Philips
Consumer Electronics and Philips
Philips
Domestic Appliances and Personal Care), Philips
Philips
Healthcare
Healthcare
(formerly Philips Medical Systems) and Philips
Philips
Lighting
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Electric Power
Electric power
Electric power
is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second. Electric power
Electric power
is usually produced by electric generators, but can also be supplied by sources such as electric batteries. It is usually supplied to businesses and homes by the electric power industry through an electric power grid. Electric power
Electric power
is usually sold by the kilowatt hour (3.6 MJ) which is the product of power in kilowatts multiplied by running time in hours
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Nortel
Nortel
Nortel
Networks Corporation, formerly known as Northern Telecom Limited, Northern Electric and sometimes known simply as Nortel, was a multinational telecommunications and data networking equipment manufacturer headquartered in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. It was founded in Montreal, Quebec
Quebec
in 1895 as the Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company
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Backward Compatibility
Backward compatibility
Backward compatibility
is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing. Backward compatibility
Backward compatibility
is sometimes also called downward compatibility.[1] Modifying a system in a way that does not allow backward compatibility is sometimes called "breaking" backward compatibility.[2] A complementary concept is forward compatibility
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Technical Standard
A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes and practices. In contrast, a custom, convention, company product, corporate standard, and so forth that becomes generally accepted and dominant is often called a de facto standard. A technical standard may be developed privately or unilaterally, for example by a corporation, regulatory body, military, etc. Standards can also be developed by groups such as trade unions, and trade associations. Standards organizations
Standards organizations
often have more diverse input and usually develop voluntary standards: these might become mandatory if adopted by a government (i.e
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Communications Protocol
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity. The protocol defines the rules syntax, semantics and synchronization of communication and possible error recovery methods. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of both.[1] Communicating systems use well-defined formats (protocol) for exchanging various messages. Each message has an exact meaning intended to elicit a response from a range of possible responses pre-determined for that particular situation. The specified behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented. Communication protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved.[2] To reach agreement, a protocol may be developed into a technical standard
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Direct Current
Direct current
Direct current
(DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. A battery is a good example of a DC power supply. Direct current
Direct current
may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams. The electric current flows in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current (AC). A term formerly used for this type of current was galvanic current.[1] The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.[2][3] Direct current
Direct current
may be obtained from an alternating current supply by use of a rectifier, which contains electronic elements (usually) or electromechanical elements (historically) that allow current to flow only in one direction
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Integrated Circuit
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics
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International Electrotechnical Commission
The International Electrotechnical Commission[3] (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization[4][5] that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology". IEC standards cover a vast range of technologies from power generation, transmission and distribution to home appliances and office equipment, semiconductors, fibre optics, batteries, solar energy, nanotechnology and marine energy as well as many others
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List Of IEC Technical Committees
IEC or International Electrotechnical Commission is a standards-making body in the field of electrical and electronics technologies. The IEC works with National Committees in different countries in preparing and maintaining standards in this space. IEC is one of the oldest standards making bodies in existence.Contents1 Standards 2 List of Technical Committees 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksStandards[edit] The IEC standards making process, similar to many other standards making processes, is handled by various technical committees or TC as they are called. The TCs are the key bodies that drive the standardization and comprise experts from the national committees and are a completely voluntary effort
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Hot Swapping
Hot swapping (frequently inaccurately called hot plugging) is replacing or adding components without stopping or shutting down the system.[1] With the appropriate software installed on the computer, a user can plug and unplug such components without rebooting. Specifically, hot swapping describes inserting and/or removing components without interruption to the system. A well-known example of this hot swap functionality is the Universal Serial Bus (USB) that allows users to add or remove peripheral components such as a mouse, keyboard, printer, or portable hard drive; depending upon the supplier such devices are characterized as hot-swappable or hot-pluggable. Hot plugging on the other hand describes only the addition of components that would expand the system without significant interruption to the system.[2] Computer components are usually cold-pluggable since the computer system must be powered down to add or remove them
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