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USA-71
USA-71, also known as GPS IIA-2, GPS II-11 and GPS SVN-24, is an American navigation satellite which forms part of the Global Positioning System . It was the second of nineteen Block IIA GPS satellites to be launched. USA-71 was launched at 02:32:00 UTC on 4 July 1991, atop a Delta II carrier rocket, flight number D206, flying in the 7925-9.5 configuration. The rocket launched from Launch Complex 17A at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
, and placed USA-71 into a transfer orbit. The satellite raised itself into medium Earth orbit using a Star-37XFP apogee motor . On 14 August 1991, USA-71 was in an orbit with a perigee of 20,085 kilometres (12,480 mi), an apogee of 20,274 kilometres (12,598 mi), a period of 717.86 minutes, and 55.1 degrees of inclination to the equator
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Navigation Satellite
A SATELLITE NAVIGATION or SATNAV system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude , latitude , and altitude /elevation ) to high precision (within a few metres) using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites. The system can be used for providing position, navigation or for tracking the position of something fitted with a receiver (satellite tracking). The signals also allow the electronic receiver to calculate the current local time to high precision, which allows time synchronisation. Satnav systems operate independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the positioning information generated. A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM (GNSS)
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Semi-synchronous Orbit
A SEMI-SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT is an orbit with a period equal to half the average rotational period of the body being orbited, and in the same direction as that body's rotation. For Earth
Earth
, a semi-synchronous orbit is considered a medium Earth orbit , with a period of just under 12 hours. For circular orbits, the altitude is approximately 20,200 km.(12,550mi) Semi-synchronous orbits are typical for GPS satellites . SEE ALSO * Molniya orbit * List of orbits REFERENCES * ^ "NASA Technical Standard 8719.14 (draft)" (PDF). NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. 8 Aug 2006. * ^ "Catalog of Earth
Earth
Satellite Orbits". 6 Sep 2012
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Medium Earth Orbit
MEDIUM EARTH ORBIT (MEO), sometimes called INTERMEDIATE CIRCULAR ORBIT (ICO), is the region of space around the Earth
Earth
above low Earth orbit (altitude of 2,000 km (1,243 mi)) and below geostationary orbit (altitude of 35,786 km (22,236 mi)). The most common use for satellites in this region is for navigation , communication , and geodetic /space environment science. The most common altitude is approximately 20,200 kilometres (12,552 mi)), which yields an orbital period of 12 hours, as used, for example, by the Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System
(GPS). Other satellites in medium Earth orbit include Glonass (with an altitude of 19,100 kilometres (11,868 mi)) and Galileo (with an altitude of 23,222 kilometres (14,429 mi)) constellations. Communications satellites that cover the North and South Pole are also put in MEO. The orbital periods of MEO satellites range from about 2 to nearly 24 hours
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Orbital Inclination
ORBITAL INCLINATION measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object. For a satellite orbiting the Earth
Earth
directly above the equator, the plane of the satellite's orbit is the same as the Earth's equatorial plane, and the satellite's orbital inclination is 0°. The general case for a circular orbit is that it is tilted, spending half an orbit over the northern hemisphere and half over the southern. If the orbit swung between 20° north latitude and 20° south latitude, then its orbital inclination would be 20°. CONTENTS* 1 Orbits * 1.1 Natural and artificial satellites * 1.2 Exoplanets and multiple star systems * 2 Other meaning * 3 Calculation * 4 See also * 5 References ORBITSThe inclination is one of the six orbital elements describing the shape and orientation of a celestial orbit
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Orbital Period
The ORBITAL PERIOD is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun
Sun
, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars , or binary stars . For objects in the Solar System
Solar System
, this is often referred to as the SIDEREAL PERIOD, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth
Earth
orbiting the Sun. The name sidereal is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky . When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the PERIOD. For example, Jupiter
Jupiter
has a sidereal period of 11.86 years while the main binary star Alpha Centauri AB has a period of about 79.91 years
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Inclination
ORBITAL INCLINATION measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object. For a satellite orbiting the Earth
Earth
directly above the equator, the plane of the satellite's orbit is the same as the Earth's equatorial plane, and the satellite's orbital inclination is 0°. The general case is that the satellite's orbit is tilted; it spends half an orbit over the northern hemisphere and half over the southern. If the orbit swung between 20° north latitude and 20° south latitude, then its orbital inclination would be 20°. CONTENTS* 1 Orbits * 1.1 Natural and artificial satellites * 1.2 Exoplanets and multiple star systems * 2 Other meaning * 3 Calculation * 4 See also * 5 References ORBITSThe inclination is one of the six orbital elements describing the shape and orientation of a celestial orbit
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Apogee Motor
An APOGEE KICK MOTOR (AKM) refers to a rocket motor that is regularly employed on artificial satellites to provide the final impulse to change the trajectory from the transfer orbit into its final (most commonly circular) orbit. For a satellite launched from the Earth, the rocket firing is done at the highest point of the transfer orbit, known as the apogee , thus giving the engine its name. An apogee kick motor is used, for example, for satellites launched into a geostationary orbit . As the vast majority of geostationary satellite launches are carried out from spaceports at a significant distance away from Earth's equator , the carrier rocket often only launches the satellite into an orbit with a non-zero inclination approximately equal to the latitude of the launch site. This orbit is commonly known as a "geostationary transfer orbit " or a "geosynchronous transfer orbit". The satellite must then provide thrust to bring forth the needed delta v to reach a geostationary orbit
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos * " E pluribus unum
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Geocentric Orbit
A GEOCENTRIC ORBIT or EARTH ORBIT involves any object orbiting Planet Earth
Earth
, such as the Moon
Moon
or artificial satellites . In 1997 NASA estimated there were approximately 2,465 artificial satellite payloads orbiting the Earth
Earth
and 6,216 pieces of space debris as tracked by the Goddard Space Flight Center
Goddard Space Flight Center
. Over 16,291 previously launched objects have decayed into the Earth's atmosphere
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Apsis
An APSIS (Greek : ἁψίς; plural APSIDES /ˈæpsɪdiːz/ , Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit . The word comes via Latin from Greek and is cognate with apse . For elliptic orbits about a larger body, there are two apsides, named with the prefixes peri- (from περί (peri), meaning 'near') and ap-, or apo- (from ἀπ(ό) (ap(ó)), meaning 'away from') added to a reference to the thing being orbited. * For a body orbiting the Sun
Sun
, the point of least distance is the PERIHELION (/ˌpɛrɪˈhiːliən/ ), and the point of greatest distance is the APHELION (/æpˈhiːliən/ )
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Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 17
CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION SPACE LAUNCH COMPLEX 17 (SLC-17), previously designated Launch Complex 17 (LC-17), was a launch site at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
, Florida
Florida
used for Thor and Delta rocket launches between 1958 and 2011. It was built in 1956 for use with the PGM-17 Thor
PGM-17 Thor
missile, the first operational ballistic missile in the arsenal of the United States. More recently the launch complex has been used for vehicles in the Delta rocket family, derived from the Thor missile, to launch probes to the Moon
Moon
and planets, solar observatories and weather satellites. SLC-17 features two expendable launch vehicle (ELV) launch pads, 17A and 17B
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US Air Force
U.S. Department of Defense * Department of the Air Force HEADQUARTERS The Pentagon
The Pentagon
Arlington County, Virginia
Arlington County, Virginia
, U.S. MOTTO(S) "Aim High ... Fly-Fight-Win" COLORS Ultramarine Blue and Golden Yellow MARCH The U.S
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Satellite Catalog Number
The SATELLITE CATALOG NUMBER (also known as NORAD
NORAD
CATALOG NUMBER, NORAD
NORAD
ID, NASA CATALOG NUMBER, USSPACECOM OBJECT NUMBER or simply CATALOG NUMBER and similar variants) is a sequential 5-digit number assigned by USSPACECOM ( United States Space Command ) to all Earth orbiting satellites in order of identification. Before USSPACECOM, the catalog was maintained by NORAD
NORAD
. The first catalogued object, catalog number 00001, is the Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
launch vehicle , with the Sputnik 1 satellite assigned catalog number 00002. As of August 2017 , the National Space Science Data Center Master Catalog listed more than 42,900 tracked objects including more than 7,800 satellites launched into orbit since 1957
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International Designator
The INTERNATIONAL DESIGNATOR, also known as COSPAR DESIGNATION, and in the United States as NSSDC ID, is an international naming convention for satellites . It consists of the launch year, a 3-digit incrementing launch number of that year and up to a 3-letter code representing the sequential identifier of a piece in a launch. For example, 1990-037A is the Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-31 , which carried the Hubble Space Telescope (1990-037B) into space. This launch was the 37th known successful launch worldwide in 1990. The number reveals that it was launched in 1990 and that it was the 37th launch made that year. Spacecraft which do not complete an orbit of the Earth, for example launches which fail to achieve orbit, are not usually assigned IDs
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Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION (CCAFS) (known as CAPE KENNEDY AIR FORCE STATION from 1963 to 1973) is an installation of the United States Air Force Space Command
Air Force Space Command
's 45th Space Wing . CCAFS is headquartered at the nearby Patrick Air Force Base , and located on Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral
in Brevard County, Florida
Brevard County, Florida
, CCAFS. The station is the primary launch head of America's Eastern Range with three launch pads currently active (Space Launch Complexes 37B , 40 , and 41 )
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