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URL Shortening
URL shortening is a technique on the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
in which a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) may be made substantially shorter and still direct to the required page. This is achieved by using a redirect which links to the web page that has a long URL. For example, the URL "http://example.com/assets/category_B/subcategory_C/Foo/" can be shortened to "https://example.com/Foo", and the URL "http://example.com/about/index.html" can be shortened to "https://goo.gl/aO3Ssc". Often the redirect domain name is shorter than the original one. A friendly URL may be desired for messaging technologies that limit the number of characters in a message (for example SMS), for reducing the amount of typing required if the reader is copying a URL from a print source, for making it easier for a person to remember, or for the intention of a permalink
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World Wide Web
The World Wide Web
World Wide Web
(abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and can be accessed via the Internet.[1] English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
in 1989
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.my
.my is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Malaysia
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Web Crawlers
A Web crawler, sometimes called a spider, is an Internet bot that systematically browses the World Wide Web, typically for the purpose of Web indexing (web spidering). Web search engines and some other sites use Web crawling
Web crawling
or spidering software to update their web content or indices of others sites' web content. Web crawlers copy pages for processing by a search engine which indexes the downloaded pages so users can search more efficiently. Crawlers consume resources on visited systems and often visit sites without approval. Issues of schedule, load, and "politeness" come into play when large collections of pages are accessed. Mechanisms exist for public sites not wishing to be crawled to make this known to the crawling agent
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Internet Bot
An Internet
Internet
Bot, also known as web robot, WWW robot or simply bot, is a software application that runs automated tasks (scripts) over the Internet.[1] Typically, bots perform tasks that are both simple and structurally repetitive, at a much higher rate than would be possible for a human alone. The largest use of bots is in web spidering (web crawler), in which an automated script fetches, analyzes and files information from web servers at many times the speed of a human. More than half of all web traffic is made up of bots.[2] Efforts by servers hosting websites to counteract bots vary. Servers may choose to outline rules on the behaviour of internet bots by implementing a robots.txt file: this file is simply text stating the rules governing a bot's behaviour on that server. Any bot interacting with (or 'spidering') any server that does not follow these rules should, in theory, be denied access to, or removed from, the affected website
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CAPTCHA
A CAPTCHA
CAPTCHA
(/kæp.tʃə/, an acronym for "Completely Automated Public Turing test
Turing test
to tell Computers and Humans Apart") is a type of challenge–response test used in computing to determine whether or not the user is human.[1] The term was coined in 2003 by Luis von Ahn, Manuel Blum, Nicholas J. Hopper, and John Langford.[2] The most common type of CAPTCHA
CAPTCHA
was first invented in 1997 by two groups working in parallel: (1) Mark D. Lillibridge, Martin Abadi, Krishna Bharat, and Andrei Z. Broder; and (2) Eran Reshef, Gili Raanan
Gili Raanan
and Eilon Solan.[3] This form of CAPTCHA requires that the user type the letters of a distorted image, sometimes with the addition of an obscured sequence of letters or digits that appears on the screen
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Top-level Domain
A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System
Domain Name System
of the Internet.[10] The top-level domain names are installed in the root zone of the name space. For all domains in lower levels, it is the last part of the domain name, that is, the last label of a fully qualified domain name
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Libya
Libya
Libya
(/ˈlɪbiə/ ( listen); Arabic: ليبيا‎),[6][7] officially the State of Libya
Libya
(Arabic: دولة ليبيا‎ Dawlat Lībyā),[citation needed][dubious – discuss] is a sovereign state in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt
Egypt
to the east, Sudan
Sudan
to the southeast, Chad
Chad
and Niger
Niger
to the south, and Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
to the west. The country is made of three historical regions, Tripolitania, Fezzan, and Cyrenaica
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Samoa
Coordinates: 13°35′S 172°20′W / 13.583°S 172.333°W / -13.583; -172.333Independent State of Samoa Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa  (Samoan)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Faʻavae i le Atua Sāmoa" " Samoa
Samoa
is founded on God"Anthem: O le fuʻa o le saʻolotoga o Samoa "The Banner of Freedom" The National Anthem of SamoaCapital and largest city Apia 13°50′S
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Mongolia
Mongolia
Mongolia
/mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/ ( listen) (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; Монгол Улс in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, and that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is sandwiched between China
China
to the south and Russia
Russia
to the north. Mongolia
Mongolia
does not share a border with Kazakhstan, although only 37 kilometres (23 mi) separates them. At 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia
Mongolia
is the 18th largest and the most sparsely populated fully sovereign country in the world, with a population of around 3 million people
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.mn
.mn is the Internet
Internet
country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Mongolia. It is administered by .MN Registry, Datacom. The domain name is composed of the consonants in the first syllable of the country name. The .MN registry is operated under the thick registry model. Administrative, Billing, Technical and Registrant contacts are required. The Redemption Grace Period (RGP) is available for .MN domains. The .mn domain name has been used to represent the U.S. state of Minnesota; an example is the Minnesota
Minnesota
Senate ([1]) but such use is not official in the state. The .mn domain elsewhere outside Mongolia is used primarily as a domain hack, for example vita .mn (a play on vitamin)
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Malaysia
Coordinates: 2°30′N 112°30′E / 2.500°N 112.500°E / 2.500; 112.500MalaysiaFlagCoat of armsMotto: "Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu"[1] "Unity Is Strength"Anthem: Negaraku My CountryCapital Kuala Lumpur 3°8′N 101°41′E / 3.133°N 101.683°E / 3.133; 101.683 Putrajaya
Putrajaya
(administrative) 2°56′35″N 101°41′58″E / 2.9430952°N 101.699373°E / 2.9430952; 101.699373Largest city Kuala Lumpur 3°8′N 101°41′E / 3.133°N 101.683°E / 3.133; 101.683Official languages Malay[2]Of
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Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
(/ˈlɪktənstaɪn/ ( listen); LIK-tən-styne; German: [ˈlɪçtn̩ʃtaɪn]), officially the Principality
Principality
of Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
(German: Fürstentum Liechtenstein),[7] is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.[8] The principality is a constitutional monarchy headed by the Prince of Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
is bordered by Switzerland
Switzerland
to the west and south and Austria
Austria
to the east and north. It has an area of just over 160 square kilometres (62 square miles), the fourth smallest in Europe, and an estimated population of 37,000
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Uniform Resource Locator
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address,[1] is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. A URL is a specific type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI),[2] although many people use the two terms interchangeably.[3][a] URLs occur most commonly to reference web pages (http), but are also used for file transfer (ftp), email (mailto), database access (JDBC), and many other applications. Most web browsers display the URL of a web page above the page in an address bar
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.li
.li is the Internet
Internet
country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Liechtenstein. The .li TLD was created in 1993. The domain is sponsored and administered by the University of Liechtenstein
University of Liechtenstein
in Vaduz.[1] Registration of .li domain names used to be managed by SWITCH, administrator of Switzerland's .ch
.ch
ccTLD. In February 2013, SWITCH discontinued its .li registration service for private customers, delegating it to a number of recognized partner firms.[2] There are no requirements to apply for the extension
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TLD
A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System
Domain Name System
of the Internet.[10] The top-level domain names are installed in the root zone of the name space. For all domains in lower levels, it is the last part of the domain name, that is, the last label of a fully qualified domain name
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.