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UNRWA
Created in December 1949, the United Nations
United Nations
Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a relief and human development agency which supports more than 5 million registered Palestinian refugees, and their descendants, who fled or were expelled from their homes during the 1948 Palestine war
1948 Palestine war
as well as those who fled or were expelled during and following the 1967 Six Day war.[2][3] Originally intended to provide jobs on public works projects and direct relief, today UNRWA
UNRWA
provides education, health care, and social services to the population it supports
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Arab
Historically: Arabian mythology (Hubal · al-Lāt · Al-‘Uzzá · Manāt · Other Goddesses) Predominantly: Islam (Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawite · Ismaili) Sizable minority: Christianity (Eastern Orthodox · Maronite · Coptic Orthodox · Greek Orthodox · Greek Catholic · Chaldean Christian) Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze · Bahá'í Faith · Sabianism · Bábism · Mandaeism)Related ethnic groupsOther Afroasiatic-speaking peoplesa Arab
Arab
ethnicity should not be confused with non- Arab
Arab
ethnicities that are also native to the Arab
Arab
world.[30] b Not all Arabs
Arabs
are Muslims
Muslims
and not all Muslims
Muslims
are Arabs
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Avi Shlaim
Avraham "Avi" Shlaim FBA (born 31 October 1945) is a historian, Emeritus Professor of International Relations at the University of Oxford and fellow of the British Academy. He is one of Israel's New Historians,[1] a group of Israeli scholars who put forward critical interpretations of the history of Zionism
Zionism
and Israel.[2]Contents1 Biography 2 Career 3 Criticism 4 Honours 5 Published works 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksBiography[edit] Shlaim was born to wealthy Jewish parents in Baghdad, Iraq. The family lived in a mansion with ten servants. His father was an importer of building materials with ties to the Iraqi leadership, including then-prime minister Nuri al-Said.[3] The Iraqi Jews' situation became problematic with Israel's War of Independence in 1948. In 1951 Shlaim's father was one of 100,000 Jews who registered to leave the country and surrender their citizenship
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Walid Khalidi
Walid Khalidi (Arabic: وليد خالدي‎, born 1925 in Jerusalem) is an Oxford
Oxford
University-educated Palestinian historian who has written extensively on the Palestinian exodus. He is General Secretary and co-founder of the Institute for Palestine Studies, established in Beirut
Beirut
in December 1963 as an independent research and publishing center focusing on the Palestine problem and the Arab–Israeli conflict. Khalidi's first teaching post was at Oxford, a position he resigned from in 1956 in protest at the British invasion of Suez. He was Professor of Political Studies at the American University of Beirut until 1982 and thereafter a research fellow at the Harvard Center for International Affairs.[1] He has also taught at Princeton University. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has been influential in scholarship, institutional development and diplomacy
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Efraim Karsh
Efraim Karsh (Hebrew: אפרים קארש‎; born 1953) is an Israeli–British historian, the founding director and emeritus professor of Middle East and Mediterranean Studies[1] at King's College London. Since 2013, he serves as professor of Political Studies at Bar-Ilan University
Bar-Ilan University
(where he also directs[2] the Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies).[3] He is also a principal research fellow (and former director) of the Middle East Forum,[4] a Philadelphia-based think tank
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Yoav Gelber
Yoav Gelber (Hebrew: יואב גלבר‎; born September 25, 1943) is a professor of history at the University of Haifa, and was formerly a visiting professor at The University of Texas
University of Texas
at Austin. He was born in
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Aref Al-Aref
Aref al-Aref
Aref al-Aref
(Arabic: عارف العارف‎,‎ 1892–1973) was a Palestinian journalist, historian and politician. Aref al-Aref
Aref al-Aref
served as mayor of East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
in the 1950s, during the Jordanian annexation of the West Bank.Contents1 Biography 2 Political activism 3 Political career 4 Published works 5 ReferencesBiography[edit] Aref al-Aref
Aref al-Aref
was born as Aref Shehadeh in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1892.[1] His father was a vegetable vendor. Excelling at his studies in primary school, he was sent to high school in Turkey. He attended the Marjan Preparatory School and Mulkiyya College in Istanbul. During his college studies, he wrote for a Turkish newspaper
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Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine[1] (Arabic: فلسطين‎ Filasṭīn; Hebrew: פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י)‬ Pālēśtīnā (EY), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948
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Tom Segev
Tom Segev
Tom Segev
(Hebrew: תום שגב‎; born March 1, 1945) is an Israeli historian, author and journalist. He is associated with Israel's New Historians, a group challenging many of the country's traditional narratives.Contents1 Biography 2 Journalism career 3 Praise and criticism 4 Published works 5 References 6 Further readingBiography[edit] Tom Segev
Tom Segev
was born in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to parents who had fled Nazi Germany in 1933
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Palestinian Return To Israel
Palestinian return to Israel
Israel
refers to the movement of Palestinians into the territory of Israel. The period from 1948 to 1956 saw extensive attempts by Palestinians to cross the border, leading to violent clash between Israeli border guards and border-crossers (residential, political and criminal). From 1967 to 1993, a period of mass employment in Israel
Israel
of Palestinian workers from the Israeli-occupied West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
prevailed, although immigration and naturalization remain largely inaccessible. During the 1990s, following numerous attacks against Israeli citizens by Palestinians, escalating policies of closure of the Green Line replaced labor mobility
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Benny Morris
Benny Morris
Benny Morris
(Hebrew: בני מוריס‬; born 8 December 1948)[1] is an Israeli historian. He is a professor of history in the Middle East Studies department of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
in the city of Beersheba, Israel. He is a key member of the group of Israeli historians known as the "New Historians," a term Morris coined to describe himself and historians Avi Shlaim
Avi Shlaim
and Ilan Pappé.[2] Morris's work on the Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
and especially the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
has won praise and criticism from both sides of the political divide
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Avraham Sela
Avraham Sela is an Israeli historian and scholar on the Middle East and international relations. He serves as the A. Ephraim and Shirley Diamond Professor of International Relations and a senior research fellow at the Harry S
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Nur-eldeen Masalha
Nur-eldeen (Nur) Masalha (Arabic: نور مصالحة‎; born 4 January 1957 in Galilee, Israel) is a Palestinian writer and academic.[1] He is Palestinian Historian
Historian
and formerly Professor of Religion and Politics and Director of the Centre for Religion and History and the Holy Land Research Project at St. Mary's University. He was also Programme Director of the MA in Religion, Politics and Conflict Resolution at St Mary's University (2005-2015). He is currently Member of the Centre for Palestine Studies, London Middle East Institute, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. He is also currently Member of the Centre for the Philosophy of History, St. Mary's University. He was Professorial Research Associate, Department of History, SOAS (University of London), 2009-2015
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East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
or Eastern Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Arabic: القدس الشرقية‎; Hebrew: מזרח ירושלים‎) is the sector of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
that was occupied by Jordan
Jordan
in 1948 and had remained out of the Israeli-held West Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at the end of the 1948–49 Arab–Israeli War
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Social Services
Social services are a range of public services provided by the government, private, and non-profit organizations
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1967 Palestinian Exodus
The 1967 Palestinian exodus refers to the flight of around 280,000 to 325,000 Palestinians[1] out of the territories captured by Israel during and in the aftermath of the Six-Day War, including the demolition of the Palestinian villages of Imwas, Yalo, and Bayt Nuba, Surit, Beit Awwa, Beit Mirsem, Shuyukh, Al-Jiftlik, Agarith and Huseirat and the "emptying" of the refugee camps of Aqabat Jaber
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