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U.N. Charter
The Charter
Charter
of the United Nations
United Nations
(also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.[1] The UN Charter
Charter
articulated a commitment to uphold human rights of citizens and outlined a broad set of principles relating to achieving ‘higher standards of living’, addressing ‘economic, social, health, and related problems,’ and ‘universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.’[2] As a charter, it is a constituent treaty, and all members are bound by its articles
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Ratification
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent where the agent lacked authority to legally bind the principal. Ratification defines the international act whereby a state indicates its consent to be bound to a treaty if the parties intended to show their consent by such an act. In the case of bilateral treaties, ratification is usually accomplished by exchanging the requisite instruments, while in the case of multilateral treaties the usual procedure is for the depositary to collect the ratifications of all states, keeping all parties informed of the situation. The institution of ratification grants states the necessary time-frame to seek the required approval for the treaty on the domestic level and to enact the necessary legislation to give domestic effect to that treaty.[1] The term applies to private contract law, international treaties, and constitutions in federations such as the United States
United States
and Canada
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Chapter XVII Of The United Nations Charter
Chapter XVII of the United Nations Charter deals with transitional security arrangements related to World War II, which was drawing to a close at the time of the Charter's promulgation. In an exception to the Charter's peace and security provisions, it allows member nations to continue attacking Japan and other enemy states until the war's end. References[edit]v t eUnited Nations CharterTextPreamble Chapter I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX AmendmentsHistory1919 Paris Peace Conference Treaty of Versailles Covenant of the League of Nations 1943 Moscow Conference 1943 Tehran Conference 1944 Dumbarton Oaks Conference 1945 Conference on International Organization SignatoriesOrgans createdSecurity Council General Assembly Economic and Social Council Trusteeship Council International Court of Justice (statute) Secretariat Military Staff CommitteeComplete text UN portalThis United Nations-related article is a stub
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Atomic Bombings Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki
Hiroshima:20,000 soldiers killed 70,000–126,000 civilians killedNagasaki:39,000–80,000 killedTotal: 129,000–226,000+ killedv t ePacific WarCentral PacificHawaii Marshalls-Gilberts raids Doolittle Raid Coral Sea Midway RY Solomons Gilberts & Marshalls Marianas & Palau Volcano & Ryukyu TrukSoutheast Asia Indochina
Indochina
(1940) Indian Ocean (1940–45) Philippines 1941–42 Franco-Thai War Thailand Dutch East Indies Malaya Hong Kong Singapore
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United Nations Day
United Nations
United Nations
Day is devoted to making known to people of the world the aims and achievements of the United Nations
United Nations
Organization
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United Nations General Assembly
For two articles dealing with membership of and participation in the General Assembly, see:General Assembly members General Assembly observersThe United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly (UNGA or GA; French: Assemblée Générale "AG") is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN
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Preamble To The United Nations Charter
The Preamble
Preamble
to the United Nations Charter
United Nations Charter
is the opening (preamble) of the United Nations
United Nations
Charter. History[edit] Jan Smuts
Jan Smuts
from South Africa originally wrote the opening lines of the Preamble
Preamble
as, "The High Contracting Parties, determined to prevent a recurrence of the fratricidal strife which twice in our generation has brought untold sorrow and loss upon mankind. . ." which would have been similar to the opening lines of the Covenant of the League of Nations
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Chapter I Of The United Nations Charter
Chapter I of the United Nations Charter
United Nations Charter
lays out the purposes and principles of the United Nations
United Nations
organization. These principles include the equality and self-determination of nations, respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms and the obligation of member countries to obey the Charter, to cooperate with the UN Security Council and to use peaceful means to resolve conflicts. These "purposes and principles" reflect a premise that the effectiveness of the United Nations
United Nations
would be enhanced with broad guidelines to guide the actions of its Organisations and member states. However, some members were concerned that these proposals granted what they considered overly broad discretionary powers for the organs of the United Nations
United Nations
in the Dumbarton Oaks Conference
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
proposals
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Peace
Peace
Peace
is the concept of harmony and the absence of hostility. In a behavioral sense, peace is a lack of conflict and freedom from fear of violence between individuals and heterogenous social groups. Throughout history some of the most extraodinary and benevolent leaders have used peace talks to establish a certain type of behavioral restraint that has resulted in the establishment of regional peace or economic growth through various forms of agreements or peace treaties. Such behavioral restraint has often resulted in de-escalation of rhetorical and physical conflicts, greater economic interactivity, and consequently substantial prosperity. The avoidance of war or violent hostility can be the result of thoughtful active listening and communication that enables greater genuine mutual understanding and therefore compromise
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Chapter II Of The United Nations Charter
Chapter II of the United Nations
United Nations
Charter deals with membership to the United Nations
United Nations
(UN) organization. Membership is open to the original signatories and "all other peace-loving states" that accept the terms and obligations set forth in the UN Charter
UN Charter
and, "in the judgment of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations"
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Chapter III Of The United Nations Charter
Chapter III of the United Nations Charter lays out the principal organs of the United Nations, and announces a gender nondiscrimination policy for United Nations hiring. Article 7[edit] They are listed in the same order as the chapters detailing their composition, functions, and powers appear in the Charter. The placement of the General Assembly first in the list probably is due to the founders' intention that the UNGA be the "first branch" or core of the UN system. Chapter III establishes:The UN General Assembly; The UN Security Council; The UN Economic and Social Council; The UN Trusteeship Council; The International Court of Justice; and The UN Secretariat.Article 8[edit] Additionally, Chapter III authorizes the establishment of subsidiary bodies to these organs, which are typically also authorized in the chapters relating to those principal organs
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Chapter XV Of The United Nations Charter
Chapter XV of the United Nations Charter
United Nations Charter
deals with the UN Secretariat. It designates the UN Secretary-General as the chief administrative officer of the organization, which includes the staff of ECOSOC, the Trusteeship Council, and other organs. Similarly to how the US Constitution
US Constitution
requires the US President
US President
to deliver a State of the Union address to the US Congress, Article 98 of the UN Charter requires the Secretary-General to "make an annual report to the General Assembly on the work of the Organization." Article 101 specifies criteria for employment at the UN, stating, "The paramount consideration in the employment of the staff and in the determination of the conditions of service shall be the necessity of securing the highest standards of efficiency, competence, and integrity
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Chapter XVI Of The United Nations Charter
Chapter XVI of the United Nations Charter contains miscellaneous provisions prohibiting secret treaties, establishing the UN Charter as supreme over any other treaties, and providing for privileges and immunities of UN officials and representatives.Wikisource has original text related to this article: Charter of the United Nations#Chapter XVI - Miscellaneous ProvisionsContents1 Article 102 2 Article 103 3 Articles 104 and 105 4 ReferencesArticle 102[edit] Article 102 bans secret treaties. Under this article, all international treaties must be registered with, and published by, the UN Secretariat. The article also states that secret treaties concluded in violation of this provision are unenforceable before UN bodies. Secret treaties were believed to have played a role in the events leading to World War I. Accordingly, U.S
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International Law
International law
International law
is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.[1][2] It serves as a framework for the practice of stable and organized international relations.[3] International law
International law
differs from state-based legal systems in that it is primarily applicable to countries rather than to private citizens. National law may become international law when treaties delegate national jurisdiction to supranational tribunals such as the European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
or the International Criminal Court. Treaties
Treaties
such as the Geneva Conventions may require national law to conform to respective parts. Much of international law is consent-based governance
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French Fifth Republic
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic
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