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Tyr
TýR (/ˈtɪər/ ; Old Norse
Old Norse
: Týr
Týr
) is a Germanic god associated with law and heroic glory in Norse mythology
Norse mythology
, portrayed as one-handed. Corresponding names in other Germanic languages are Gothic TEIWS, Old English
Old English
TīW and Old High German
Old High German
ZIU and CYO, all from Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
*TīWAZ. The Latinised name is rendered as TIUS or TIO and also formally as MARS THINCSUS
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Mars (mythology)
In ancient Roman religion and myth , MARS (Latin : Mārs, ) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome . He was second in importance only to Jupiter and he was the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army . Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin Martius ), and in October, which began the season for military campaigning and ended the season for farming. Under the influence of Greek culture , Mars was identified with the Greek god Ares , whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars. But the character and dignity of Mars differed in fundamental ways from that of his Greek counterpart, who is often treated with contempt and revulsion in Greek literature
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Old English
OLD ENGLISH (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or ANGLO-SAXON is the earliest historical form of the English language
English language
, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman Conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman , a relative of French . This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English
Old English
era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English
Middle English

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Proto-Indo-European Language
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Bad
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Migration Period
The MIGRATION PERIOD was a time of widespread migrations within or into Europe in the middle of the first millennium AD. It has also been termed the VöLKERWANDERUNG (German ) and, from the Roman and Greek perspective the BARBARIAN INVASIONS. Many of the migrations were movements of Germanic , Slavic , and other peoples into the territory of the then Roman Empire , with or without accompanying invasions or war. The migrants comprised war bands or tribes of 10,000 to 20,000 people, but in the course of 100 years, they numbered not more than 750,000 in total, compared to an average 39.9 million population of the Roman Empire at that time. Although immigration was common throughout the time of the Roman Empire, the period in question was, in the 19th century, often defined as running from about the 5th to 8th centuries AD
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Indo-European Religion
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse
Domestication of the horse
* Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
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Icelandic Language
ICELANDIC /aɪsˈlændɪk/ ( listen ) (Icelandic: íslenska, pronounced ( listen )) is a North Germanic language
Germanic language
, the language of Iceland
Iceland
. It is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic or Nordic branch of the Germanic languages
Germanic languages
. Historically, it was the westernmost of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
prior to the colonisation of the Americas . Icelandic, Faroese , Norn , and Western Norwegian formerly constituted West Nordic; Danish , Eastern Norwegian and Swedish constituted East Nordic. Modern Norwegian Bokmål
Bokmål
is influenced by both groups, leading the Nordic languages to be divided into mainland Scandinavian languages and Insular Nordic (including Icelandic)
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Dyaus
RITES OF PASSAGE * Garbhadhana * Pumsavana * Simantonayana * Jatakarma * Namakarana * Nishkramana *
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Welsh Language
'Cymraeg' pronounced REGION Spoken throughout Wales, and in Chubut province of Argentina NATIVE SPEAKERS All UK speakers : 700,000+ (2012) * Wales
Wales
: 562,016 speakers (19.0% of the population of Wales), (data from 2011 Census); All skills (speaking, reading, or writing): 630,062 language users (reference) * England
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Codex Vindobonensis 795
The CODEX VINDOBONENSIS 795 (Vienna Austrian National Library Codex) is a 9th-century manuscript. It contains letters and treatises by Alcuin , including a discussion of the Gothic alphabet . It also contains a description of the Anglo-Saxon futhorc . FURTHER READING * Ebbinghaus, Ernst A.: The Gotica of Codex Vindobonensis 795 (in: Germanic studies in honor of Otto Springer , Pittsburgh 1978, pp. 93–102). * Ebbinghaus, Ernst A.: Gotica XIX, GL 23:1 (1983) 48-50 . * Rotsaert, Marie-Louise: Per una definizione delle fonti gotiche del Codex Vindobonensis 795 - appunti metodologici (in: Patrizia Lendinara right: 15px; display: none;"> * v * t * e This writing system -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Wessobrunn Prayer
The WESSOBRUNN PRAYER, sometimes called the WESSOBRUNN CREATION POEM (German : Wessobrunner Gebet, Wessobrunner Schöpfungsgedicht), believed to date from c790, is among the earliest known poetic works in Old High German . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Description * 2.1 Text * 3 Notes * 4 Adaptations * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links ORIGINSThe poem is named after Wessobrunn Abbey , a Benedictine monastery in Bavaria , for centuries the repository of the sole manuscript, which is now in the Bavarian State Library in Munich (ref: Clm 22053, III, ff 65b/66a). The date of composition is put at around 790 or a little later, while the surviving manuscript dates from about 814. The author of the verses is unknown, although from the content and a couple of linguistic features (see below), it seems highly probable that it was composed after an Anglo-Saxon model for use in the Christian missions to the heathen taking place in Germany at this time
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Norwegian Language
no – inclusive code Individual codes: nb – Bokmål
Bokmål
nn – Nynorsk
Nynorsk
ISO 639-2 nor – inclusive code Individual codes: nob – Bokmål
Bokmål
nno – Nynorsk
Nynorsk
ISO 639-3 nor – inclusive code Individual codes: nob – Bokmål
Bokmål
nno – Nynorsk
Nynorsk
GLOTTOLOG norw1258 LINGUASPHERE 52-AAA-ba to -be; 52-AAA-cf to -cg Areas where Norwegian is spoken, including North Dakota (where 0.4% of the population speaks Norwegian) and Minnesota
Minnesota
(0.1% of the population) (Data: U.S. Census 2000). THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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𐍄
Egyptian hieroglyphs 32 c. BCE * Hieratic 32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* Phoenician 12 c. BCE * Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE * Tifinagh * Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family (see) * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE* Devanagari 13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE * Avestan 4 c. CE * Palmyrene 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * Nabataean 2 c. BCE * Arabic 4 c. CE * N\'Ko 1949 CE* Sogdian 2 c. BCE * Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE * Old Hungarian c. 650 CE* Old Uyghur * Mongolian 1204 CE * Mandaic 2 c. CE* Greek 8 c. BCE * Etruscan 8 c. BCE * Latin 7 c. BCE * Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE * Runic 2 c
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Deva (Hinduism)
DEVA (Sanskrit: देव, Devá) means "heavenly, divine, anything of excellence", and is also one of the terms for a deity in Hinduism
Hinduism
. Deva is masculine, and the related feminine equivalent is devi (pronounced Devee). In the earliest Vedic literature, all supernatural beings are called Asuras . The concepts and legends evolve in ancient Indian literature, and by the late Vedic period, benevolent supernatural beings are referred to as Deva-Asuras. In post-Vedic texts, such as the Puranas
Puranas
and the Itihasas of Hinduism, the Devas represent the good, and the Asuras the bad. In some medieval Indian literature, Devas are also referred to as SURAS and contrasted with their equally powerful but malevolent half-brothers , referred to as the Asuras
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Lithuanian Language
LITHUANIAN (lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania
Lithuania
and is recognized as one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. There are about 2.9 million native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania
Lithuania
and about 200,000 abroad. Lithuanian is a Baltic language , related to Latvian . It is written in a Latin
Latin
alphabet . Lithuanian is often said to be the most conservative living Indo-European language , retaining many features of Proto-Indo-European now lost in other Indo-European languages
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