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Tyagaraja
KAKARLA TYAGABRAHMAM (4 May 1767 – 6 January 1847) or Saint Tyagaraja, also known as TYāGAYYA in Telugu, was one of the greatest composers of Carnatic music
Carnatic music
or a form of Indian classical music
Indian classical music
. He was a prolific composer and highly influential in the development of the classical music tradition . Tyagaraja
Tyagaraja
composed thousands of devotional compositions, most in Telugu and in praise of Lord Rama
Rama
, many of which remain popular today. Of special mention are five of his compositions called the Pancharatna Kritis (English: "five gems"), which are often sung in programs in his honour. Tyagaraja
Tyagaraja
saw the reigns of four kings of Maratha dynasty — Tulaja II (1763-1787), Amarasimha (1787-1798), Serfoji II (1798-1832) and Sivaji II (1832-1855)
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Tillana
A TILLANA or THILLANA is a rhythmic piece in Carnatic music
Carnatic music
that is generally performed at the end of a concert and widely used in classical indian dance performances. A Tillana
Tillana
uses tala-like phrases in the pallavi and anupallavi , and lyrics in the charanam . Some have theorized that it is based on the Hindustani tarana . REFERENCES * ^ "Pure aural feast". The Hindu. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2012. * ^ Subrahmanyam, Velcheti (2 February 2012). "Master holds in hypnotic spell". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 February 2012. * ^ Kumar, Ranee (16 February 2012). "Resonant repertoire". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 February 2012. * ^ according to Balasaraswati , from a discussion with Amir Khan from the AIR archives, commercially unpublished
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Ragam Thanam Pallavi
RAGAM TANAM PALLAVI is a form of singing in Carnatic music
Carnatic music
which allows the musicians to improvise to a great extent. It is one of the most complete aspects of Indian classical music, demonstrating the entire gamut of talents and the depth of knowledge of the musician. It incorporates raga alapana , tanam , niraval , and kalpanaswara . In more elaborate ragam tanam pallavis, a tani avartanam may follow
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Saraswati Veena
The SARASVATI VīṇA (also spelled SARASWATI VINA) ( Tamil : வீணை, Bengali : সরস্বতী বীণা , Sanskrit : वीणा (vīṇā), Kannada : ವೀಣೆ, Malayalam
Malayalam
: വീണ, Telugu : వీణ) is an Indian plucked string instrument . It is named after the Hindu
Hindu
goddess Saraswati
Saraswati
, who is usually depicted holding or playing the instrument. Also known as raghunatha veena is used mostly in Carnatic Indian classical music
Indian classical music
. There are several variations of the veena, which in its South Indian form is a member of the lute family. One who plays the veena is referred to as a vainika. It is one of other major types of veena popular today. The others include chitra veena , vichitra veena and rudra veena
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Venu
The VENU ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: वेणु; veṇu) is one of the ancient transverse flutes of Indian classical music
Indian classical music
. It is an aerophone typically made from bamboo, that is a side blown wind instrument. It continues to be in use in the South Indian Carnatic music
Carnatic music
tradition. In Northern Indian music, a similar flute is called bansuri . In the South, it is also called by various other names such as pullankuzhal (புல்லாங்குழல்) in Tamil , പുല്ലാങ്കുഴല് in Malayalam , and ಕೊಳಲು (kūḷalu) in Kannada
Kannada
. It is known as pillana grōvi (పిల్లన గ్రోవి) or Vēṇuvu (వేణువు) in Telugu (Andhra Pradesh)
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Nadaswaram
The NADASWARAM, NAGASWARAM, NADHASWARAM or NATHASWARAM is a double reed wind instrument . It is a traditional classical instrument used in Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala. This instrument is "among the world's loudest non-brass acoustic instruments". It is a wind instrument similar to the North Indian shehnai but much longer, with a hardwood body and a large flaring bell made of wood or metal. In Tamil culture , the nadaswaram is considered to be very auspicious, and it is a key musical instrument played in almost all Hindu
Hindu
weddings and temples of the South Indian tradition. It is part of the family of instruments known as mangala vadya (lit. mangala , vadya ). The instrument is usually played in pairs, and accompanied by a pair of drums called thavil ; it can also be accompanied with a drone from a similar oboe called the ottu
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Kirtana
KIRTANA or KIRTAN ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: कीर्तन; IAST
IAST
: Kīrtana) is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word that means "narrating, reciting, telling, describing" of an idea or story. It also refers to a genre of religious performance arts, connoting a musical form of narration or shared recitation, particularly of spiritual or religious ideas. With roots in the Vedic anukirtana tradition, a Kirtana is a call-and-response style song or chant , set to music, wherein multiple singers recite or describe a legend, or express loving devotion to a deity, or discuss spiritual ideas. It may include dancing or direct expression of bhavas (emotive states) by the singer. Many Kirtana performances are structured to engage the audience where they either repeat the chant, or reply to the call of the singer. A person performing kirtana is known as a kirtankara (or kirtankar)
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Kriti
KRITI ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: कृति, KRTI) is a format of a musical composition typical to Carnatic music
Carnatic music
, an Indian classical music style. Kritis form the backbone of any typical Carnatic music
Carnatic music
concert and is the longer format of a Carnatic music
Carnatic music
song. Kriti
Kriti
also means Creation. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Variations * 3 References * 4 External links STRUCTUREConventional Kritis typically contain three parts * Pallavi , the equivalent of a refrain in Western music * Anupallavi , the second verse, which is sometimes optional * Charanam , the final (and longest) verse that wraps up the songThe charanam usually borrows patterns from the anupallavi
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Melakarta
MēḷAKARTA is a collection of fundamental ragas (musical scales) in Carnatic music
Carnatic music
(South Indian classical music). Mēḷakarta ragas are parent ragas (hence known as janaka ragas) from which other ragas may be generated. A melakarta raga is sometimes referred as mela, karta or sampurna as well, though the latter term is inaccurate, as a sampurna raga need not be a melakarta (take the raga Bhairavi, for example). In Hindustani music
Hindustani music
the thaat is equivalent of Melakarta. There are 10 thaats in Hindustani music, though the commonly accepted melakarta scheme has 72 ragas
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Asampurna Melakarta
The ASAMPURNA MELAKARTA (transliterated as ASAṃPūRṇA MēḷAKARTA) scheme is the system of 72 ragas (musical scales) originally proposed in the 17th century by Venkatamakhin in his Chaturdanda Prakasikha . This proposal used scales with notes that do not conform to the sampurna raga system. Skipped notes or repeated notes, etc., were used in some of the ragas. Some of the ragas of any Melakarta
Melakarta
system will use Vivadi swaras (discordant notes). The original system is supposed to avoid such ill-effects and was followed by the Muthuswami Dikshitar
Muthuswami Dikshitar
school. The naming of the original system followed Katapayadi system
Katapayadi system
. Muthuswami Dikshitar's compositions use the name of these ragas in the lyrics of the songs and is still referred to by those names even in radio / TV announcements of these songs
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Swarajati
SWARAJATI is a form in Carnatic music
Carnatic music
, which is helpful before learning a varnam . It has pallavi , sometimes an anupallavi , and at least one charanam . The themes of swarajathis are usually either bhakthi, love or courage. It is a composition which usually has a pleasing melody and are suitable for singing in early lessons, musical concerts and dance concerts. The most popular and the oldest known Swarajathi is in Huseni raga , hau re raa bhagaya in Telugu by Melattur Veerabhadrayya . Swarajatis have been composed in numerous raagas - Bilahari
Bilahari
, Hamsadhvani , Kalyani , Janjuti, Kamach, etc. REFERENCES * ^ "Royal Carpet: Glossary of Carnatic Terms S"
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Varnam
VARṇAM is a form of song in the Carnatic music
Carnatic music
repertoire consisting of short metric pieces which encapsulate the main features and requirements of a raga . The features and rules of the raga (also known as the sanchaaraas of a raga) include how each note of the raga should be stressed, the scale of the raga, and so on. Known for their complex structure, varnams are a fundamental form in Carnatic music. All varnams consist of lyrics, as well as swara passages, including a pallavi , an anupallavi , muktayi swaras, a charanam , and chittaswaras . There are two types of varnams, known as Taana varnam and Padha varnam. Considered as probably the most complex form in Carnatic music, varnams play a significant role in Carnatic music
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Gottuvadhyam
The CHITRAVINA (also known as CHITRA VEENA, CHITRAVEENA, CHITRA VINA, HANUMAD VINA, or MAHANATAKA VINA) is a 20 or 21-string fretless lute in Carnatic music
Carnatic music
. Around the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it started to be known by another name, GOTUVADYAM (often mis-spelt as GOTTUVADYAM, GOTTUVADHYAM, KOTTUVADYAM etc.), which was bestowed upon it by Sakha Rama Rao from Tiruvidaimarudur , who was responsible for bringing it back to the concert scene. Today it is played mainly in South India, though its origins can be traced back to Bharata's Natya Shastra
Natya Shastra
(200 BCE-200 CE), where it is mentioned as a seven string fretless instrument. Sarangadeva (1210–47) also made a similar reference to the chitravina in his work, Sangita Ratnakara
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Violin
The VIOLIN, also known informally as a FIDDLE, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family . Most violins have a hollow wooden body. It is the smallest and highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. Smaller violin-type instruments are known, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin , but these are virtually unused. The violin typically has four strings tuned in perfect fifths , and is most commonly played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can also be played by plucking the strings with the fingers (pizzicato ) and by striking the strings with the wooden side of the bow (col legno ). Violins are important instruments in a wide variety of musical genres. They are most prominent in the Western classical tradition , both in ensembles (from chamber music to orchestras ) and as solo instruments and in many varieties of folk music , including country music , bluegrass music and in jazz
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Shruti Box
A SHRUTI BOX (SRUTI BOX or SURPETI) is an instrument that traditionally works on a system of bellows . It is similar to a harmonium and is used to provide a drone in a practice session or concert of Indian classical music
Indian classical music
. It is used as an accompaniment to other instruments and notably the flute. The shruti box is also used in classical singing. In classical singing the shruti box is used to help tune the voice. The use of the shruti box has widened with the cross-cultural influences of world music and new-age music to provide a drone for many other instruments as well as vocalists. Adjustable buttons allow tuning. Nowadays, electronic shruti boxes are commonly used, which are called shruti petti in Tamil and Telugu and sur peti in Hindi
Hindi

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List Of Carnatic Composers
List of composers of Carnatic music
Carnatic music
, a subgenre of Indian classical music . CONTENTS * 1 Pre-Trinity composers (before 18th century) * 2 Trinity-Age composers (18th century) * 3 Post-Trinity composers (19th century) * 4 Post-Trinity composers—20th century and beyond * 5 Other composers * 6 Other composers in Mysore Kingdom * 7 Other composers— Bhakti
Bhakti
Saints * 8 See also * 9 References PRE-TRINITY COMPOSERS (BEFORE 18TH CENTURY) COMPOSER YEARS LANGUAGES APPROX
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