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Tyagaraja
Kakarla Tyagabrahmam (4 May 1767 – 6 January 1847) or Saint Tyagaraja, also known as Tyāgayya in Telugu, was one of the greatest composers of Carnatic music, a form of Indian classical music. He was a prolific composer and highly influential in the development of the classical music tradition. Tyagaraja
Tyagaraja
and his contemporaries Syama Sastri and Muthuswami Dikshitar
Muthuswami Dikshitar
were regarded as the Trinity of modern Carnatic music
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Tanpura
The tanpura (तानपूरा; or tambura, tanpuri) is a long-necked plucked string instrument found in various forms in Indian music. It does not play melody but rather supports and sustains the melody of another instrument or singer by providing a continuous harmonic bourdon or drone. A tanpura is not played in rhythm with the soloist or percussionist: as the precise timing of plucking a cycle of four strings in a continuous loop is a determinant factor in the resultant sound, it is played unchangingly during the complete performance. The repeated cycle of plucking all strings creates the sonic canvas on which the melody of the raga is drawn
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Ragam Thanam Pallavi
Ragam Tanam Pallavi
Pallavi
[1] is a form of singing in Carnatic music
Carnatic music
which allows the musicians to improvise to a great extent. It is one of the most complete aspects of Indian classical music, demonstrating the entire gamut of talents and the depth of knowledge of the musician. It incorporates raga alapana, tanam, niraval, and kalpanaswara
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Swara
Swara (Hindi स्वर), also spelled swara, is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word that connotes a note in the successive steps of the octave. More comprehensively, it is the ancient Indian concept about the complete dimension of musical pitch.[1][2] The swara differs from the shruti concept in Indian music. A shruti is the smallest gradation of pitch that a human ear can detect and a singer or instrument can produce.[3] A swara is the selected pitches from which the musician constructs the scales, melodies and ragas
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Raga
A raga or raaga (IAST: rāga; also raag or ragam ; literally "coloring, tingeing, dyeing"[1][2]) is a melodic framework for improvisation akin to a melodic mode in Indian classical music.[3] While the raga is a remarkable and central feature of the classical music tradition, it has no direct translation to concepts in the classical European music tradition.[4][5] Each raga is an array of melodic structures with musical motifs, considered in the Indian tradition to have the ability to "color the mind" and affect the emotions of the audience.[1][2][5] A raga consists of at least five notes, and each raga provides the musician with a musical framework within which to improvise.[3][6][7] The specific notes within a raga can be reordered and improvised by the musician
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Tala (music)
A Tala ( IAST
IAST
tāla), sometimes spelled Taal or Tal, literally means a "clap, tapping one's hand on one's arm, a musical measure".[1] It is the term used in Indian classical music
Indian classical music
to refer to musical meter,[2] that is any rhythmic beat or strike that measures musical time
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Melakarta
Mēḷakarta is a collection of fundamental musical scales (ragas) in Carnatic music
Carnatic music
(South Indian classical music). Mēḷakarta ragas are parent ragas (hence known as janaka ragas) from which other ragas may be generated. A melakarta raga is sometimes referred as mela, karta or sampurna as well, though the latter term is inaccurate, as a sampurna raga need not be a melakarta (take the raga Bhairavi, for example). In Hindustani music
Hindustani music
the thaat is equivalent of Melakarta
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Asampurna Melakarta
The Asampurna Melakarta
Melakarta
(transliterated as Asaṃpūrṇa Mēḷakarta) scheme is the system of 72 ragas (musical scales) originally proposed in the 17th century by Venkatamakhin in his Chaturdanda Prakasikha.[1] This proposal used scales with notes that do not conform to the sampurna raga system. Skipped notes or repeated notes, etc., were used in some of the ragas.[1] Some of the ragas of any Melakarta
Melakarta
system will use Vivadi swaras (discordant notes). The original system is supposed to avoid such ill-effects and was followed by the Muthuswami Dikshitar
Muthuswami Dikshitar
school
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Swarajati
Swarajati
Swarajati
is a form in Carnatic music, which is helpful before learning a varnam. It has pallavi, sometimes an anupallavi, and at least one charanam. The themes of swarajathis are usually either bhakthi, love or courage. It is a composition which usually has a pleasing melody and are suitable for singing in early lessons, musical concerts and dance concerts. The most popular and the oldest known Swarajathi is in Huseni raga, hau re raa bhagaya in Telugu by Melattur Veerabhadrayya. Swarajatis have been composed in numerous raagas - Bilahari, Hamsadhvani, Kalyani, Janjuti, Kamach, etc.[1] References[edit]^ "Royal Carpet: Glossary of Carnatic Terms S"
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Varnam
Varṇam is a form of song in the Carnatic music
Carnatic music
repertoire consisting of short metric pieces which encapsulate the main features and requirements of a raga.[1] The features and rules of the raga (also known as the sanchaaraas of a raga) include how each note of the raga should be stressed, the scale of the raga, and so on.[2] Known for their complex structure, varnams are a fundamental form in Carnatic music.[3] All varnams consist of lyrics,[3] as well as swara passages, including a pallavi, an anupallavi, muktaayi swaras, a charanam, and chittaswaras.[2] There are two types of varnams, known as Taana
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Kriti
Kriti
Kriti
(Sanskrit: कृति, krti) is a format of musical composition typical to Carnatic music. Kritis form the mental backbone of any typical Carnatic music
Carnatic music
concert and is the longer format of Carnatic song. "Kriti" also means Creation.Contents1 Structure 2 Variations 3 References 4 External linksStructure[edit] Conventional Kritis typically contain three partsPallavi, the equivalent of a refrain in Western music Anupallavi, the second verse, which is sometimes optional Charanam, the final (and longest) verse that wraps up the songThe charanam usually borrows patterns from the anupallavi. The charanam's last line usually contains the composer's signature, or mudra, with which the composer leaves their mark. Variations[edit] Some Kritis have a verse between the anupallavi and the charaṇam, called the chiṭṭaswara. This verse consists only of notes, and has no words
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Kirtana
Kirtana or Kirtan
Kirtan
(Sanskrit: कीर्तन; IAST: Kīrtana) is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word that means "narrating, reciting, telling, describing" of an idea or story.[1][2] It also refers to a genre of religious performance arts, connoting a musical form of narration or shared recitation, particularly of spiritual or religi
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Tillana
A Tillana
Tillana
or thillana is a rhythmic piece in Carnatic music
Carnatic music
that is generally performed at the end of a concert and widely used in classical indian dance performances.[1][2][3] A Tillana
Tillana
uses tala-like phrases in the pallavi and anupallavi, and lyrics in the charanam. Some have theorized that it is based on the Hindustani tarana.[4] References[edit]^ "Pure aural feast". The Hindu. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2012.  ^ Subrahmanyam, Velcheti (2 February 2012). "Master holds in hypnotic spell". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 February 2012.  ^ Kumar, Ranee (16 February 2012). "Resonant repertoire". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 February 2012.  ^ according to Balasaraswati, from a discussion with Amir Khan from the AIR archives, commercially unpublished
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Thanjavur Maratha Kingdom
The Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Maratha
Maratha
kingdom of the Bhonsle
Bhonsle
dynasty was a principality of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
between the 17th and 19th centuries. Their native language was Marathi
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Venu
The venu (Sanskrit: वेणु; veṇu) is one of the ancient transverse flutes of Indian classical music.[1] It is an aerophone typically made from bamboo, that is a side blown wind instrument. It continues to be in use in the South Indian Carnatic music tradition.[2] In Northern Indian music, a similar flute is called bansuri.[3] In the South, it is also called by various other names such as pullankuzhal (புல்லாங்குழல்) in Tamil, പുല്ലാങ്കുഴല് in Malayalam, and ಕೊಳಲು (koḷalu) in Kannada
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Nadaswaram
The nadhaswaram, nagaswaram, nadhaswaram or nathaswaram is a double reed wind instrument. It is a traditional classical instrument used in Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala. This instrument is "among the world's loudest non-brass acoustic instruments".[1] It is a wind instrument similar to the North Indian shehnai but much longer, with a hardwood body and a large flaring bell made of wood or metal. In Tamil culture, and Telugu culture,the nadaswaram is considered to be very auspicious, and it is a key musical instrument played in almost all Hindu
Hindu
weddings and temples of the South Indian tradition.[2] It is part of the family of instruments known as mangala vadya[3] (lit. mangala ["auspicious"], vadya ["instrument"])
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