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Two-stroke
A TWO-STROKE, or TWO-CYCLE, ENGINE is a type of internal combustion engine which completes a power cycle with two strokes (up and down movements) of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution. This is in contrast to a "four-stroke engine ", which requires four strokes of the piston to complete a power cycle during two crankshaft revolutions. In a two-stroke engine, the end of the combustion stroke and the beginning of the compression stroke happen simultaneously, with the intake and exhaust (or scavenging ) functions occurring at the same time. Two-stroke engines often have a high power-to-weight ratio , power being available in a narrow range of rotational speeds called the "power band". Compared to four-stroke engines, two-stroke engines have a greatly reduced number of moving parts, and so can be more compact and significantly lighter
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NATO
"A mind unfettered in deliberation" "Un esprit libéré de la délibération" FLAG FORMATION 4 April 1949; 68 years ago (1949-04-04) TYPE Military alliance HEADQUARTERS Brussels
Brussels
, Belgium
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Clean Air Act (United States)
The CLEAN AIR ACT is a United States federal law
United States federal law
designed to control air pollution on a national level. It is one of the United States' first and most influential modern environmental laws , and one of the most comprehensive air quality laws in the world. As with many other major U.S. federal environmental statutes , it is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), in coordination with state, local, and tribal governments. Its implementing regulations are codified at 40 C.F.R. Subchapter C, Parts 50-97. The 1955 Air Pollution Control Act was the first U.S federal legislation that pertained to air pollution ; it also provided funds for federal government research of air pollution. The first federal legislation to actually pertain to "controlling" air pollution was the Clean Air Act of 1963
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Saab Automobile
SAAB AUTOMOBILE AB /ˈsɑːb/ was a manufacturer of automobiles that was founded in Sweden
Sweden
in 1945 when its parent company, SAAB AB (soon to be Saab AB) ( listen (help ·info )), began a project to design a small automobile. The first production model, the Saab 92 , was launched in 1949. In 1968 the parent company merged with Scania-Vabis , and ten years later the Saab 900
Saab 900
was launched, in time becoming Saab's best-selling model. In the mid-1980s the new Saab 9000 model also appeared. In 1989, the automobile division of Saab-Scania was restructured into an independent company, Saab Automobile
Automobile
AB. The American manufacturer General Motors
General Motors
(GM) took 50 percent ownership with an investment of US$600 million
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Sump
A SUMP (American English and some parts of Canada: OIL PAN) is a low space that collects often undesirable liquids such as water or chemicals. A sump can also be an infiltration basin used to manage surface runoff water and recharge underground aquifers . Sump can also refer to an area in a cave where an underground flow of water exits the cave into the earth. CONTENTS * 1 Examples * 2 Other uses * 3 See also * 4 References EXAMPLESOne common example of a sump is the lowest point in a basement, into which flows water that seeps in from outside. If this is a regular problem, a sump pump that moves the water outside of the house may be used. Another example is the oil pan of an engine . The oil is used to lubricate the engine's moving parts and it pools in a reservoir known as its sump, at the bottom of the engine. Use of a sump requires the engine to be mounted slightly higher to make space for it
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Diesel Generator
A DIESEL GENERATOR is the combination of a diesel engine with an electric generator (often an alternator ) to generate electrical energy . This is a specific case of engine-generator . A diesel compression-ignition engine is usually designed to run on diesel fuel , but some types are adapted for other liquid fuels or natural gas . Diesel generating sets are used in places without connection to a power grid , or as emergency power-supply if the grid fails, as well as for more complex applications such as peak-lopping, grid support and export to the power grid. Proper sizing of diesel generators is critical to avoid low-load or a shortage of power. Sizing is complicated by the characteristics of modern electronics , specifically non-linear loads
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Eastern Bloc
The EASTERN BLOC was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe , generally the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the countries of the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
. The terms COMMUNIST BLOC and SOVIET BLOC were also used to denote groupings of states aligned with the Soviet Union, although these terms might include states outside Central and Eastern Europe
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Motorcycle
A MOTORCYCLE often called a BIKE, MOTORBIKE, or CYCLE is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle . Motorcycle design varies greatly to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, commuting , cruising , sport including racing , and off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies . In 1894, Hildebrand "> A cruiser (front) and a sportbike (background) A Ural motorcycle with a sidecar French gendarme motorcyclist The term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction (see #Legal definitions and restrictions ). There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, and dual purpose. Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes. There is often a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes
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Exige
The LOTUS EXIGE /ɛɡˈziːʒ/ is a British two-door, two-seat sports car made by Lotus Cars
Lotus Cars
since 2000. It is essentially a coupé version of the Lotus Elise
Lotus Elise
, a mid-engined roadster in production since 1996
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Lotus Cars
LOTUS CARS is a British company that manufactures sports cars and racing cars with its headquarters in Hethel, United Kingdom, and is a subsidiary of Chinese automotive company Geely . Lotus cars include the Esprit , Elan , Europa , Elise and Exige sports cars and it had motor racing success with Team Lotus in Formula One
Formula One
. Lotus Cars
Lotus Cars
are based at the former site of RAF Hethel , a World War II
World War II
airfield in Norfolk
Norfolk
. The company designs and builds race and production automobiles of light weight and fine handling characteristics. It also owns the engineering consultancy Lotus Engineering, which has facilities in the United Kingdom, United States, China, and Malaysia
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Ultralight
ULTRALIGHT AVIATION (called MICROLIGHT AVIATION in some countries) is the flying of lightweight, 1 or 2 seat fixed-wing aircraft. Some countries differentiate between weight-shift control and conventional 3-axis control aircraft with ailerons , elevator and rudder , calling the former "microlight" and the latter "ultralight". During the late 1970s and early 1980s, mostly stimulated by the hang gliding movement, many people sought affordable powered flight. As a result, many aviation authorities set up definitions of lightweight, slow-flying aeroplanes that could be subject to minimum regulations. The resulting aeroplanes are commonly called "ultralight aircraft" or "microlights", although the weight and speed limits differ from country to country. In Europe the sporting (FAI) definition limits the maximum take-off weight to 450 kg (992 lb) (472.5 kg (1,042 lb) if a ballistic parachute is installed) and a maximum stalling speed of 65 km/h (40 mph)
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Underbone
An UNDERBONE is a motorcycle that uses structural tube framing with an overlay of plastic or non-structural body panels and contrasts with monocoque or unibody designs where pressed steel serves both as the vehicle's structure and bodywork. Outside Asia, the term underbone is commonly misunderstood to refer to any lightweight motorcycle that uses the construction type, known colloquially as step-throughs, mopeds or scooters. An underbone cycle may share its fuel tank position and tube framing, along with fitted bodywork and splash guards with a scooter while the wheel size, engine position, and power transmission are like those of conventional motorcycles
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Locomotive
A LOCOMOTIVE or ENGINE is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train . A locomotive has no payload capacity of its own, and its sole purpose is to move the train along the tracks. In contrast, some trains have self-propelled payload-carrying vehicles. These are not normally considered locomotives, and may be referred to as multiple units , motor coaches or railcars . The use of these self-propelled vehicles is increasingly common for passenger trains , but rare for freight (see CargoSprinter ). Vehicles which provide motive power to haul an unpowered train, but are not generally considered locomotives because they have payload space or are rarely detached from their trains, are known as power cars . Traditionally, locomotives pulled trains from the front
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VEB Sachsenring Automobilwerke Zwickau
HQM SACHSENRING GMBH is a Zwickau
Zwickau
-based company that supplies chassis and body parts to the automotive industry. The company was named after the Sachsenring
Sachsenring
race track. Called VEB SACHSENRING until 1990, it was a producer of vehicles in the former German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
, its most famous product being the Trabant
Trabant
. After three years in bankruptcy, SACHSENRING AG was purchased in February, 2006 by Härterei und Qualitätsmanagement GmbH (HQM) of Leipzig
Leipzig
. The company supplies among other things, the Volkswagen factory with parts for the Golf and Passat models
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Gasoline
GASOLINE ( American English
American English
) or PETROL ( British English
British English
), is a transparent, petroleum -derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in internal combustion engines . It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. On average, a 42-gallon barrel of crude oil (159 L) yields about 19 US gallons (72 L) of gasoline when processed in an oil refinery , though this varies based on the crude oil source's assay . The characteristic of a particular gasoline blend to resist igniting too early (which causes knocking and reduces efficiency in reciprocating engines) is measured by its octane rating . Gasoline
Gasoline
is produced in several grades of octane rating
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Thermodynamic Efficiency
In thermodynamics , the THERMAL EFFICIENCY ( t h {displaystyle eta _{th},} ) is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy , such as an internal combustion engine , a steam turbine or a steam engine , a boiler , a furnace , or a refrigerator for example. For a power cycle , thermal efficiency indicates the extent to which the energy added by heat (primary energy ) is converted to net work output (secondary energy). In the case of a refrigeration or heat pump cycle , thermal efficiency indicates the extent to which the energy added by work is converted to net heat output
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