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Tutsi
The Tutsi
Tutsi
(/ˈtʊtsi/;[1] Rwanda-Rundi pronunciation: [tūtsī]), or Abatutsi, are a social class or ethnic group of the African Great Lakes region. Historically, they were often referred to as the Watutsi,[2] Watusi,[2] Wahuma, Wahima or the Wahinda. The Tutsi
Tutsi
form a subgroup of the Banyarwanda
Banyarwanda
and the Barundi
Barundi
peoples, who reside primarily in Rwanda
Rwanda
and Burundi, but with significant populations also found in Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
and Tanzania.[3] They speak Rwanda-Rundi, a group of Bantu languages. The Tutsi
Tutsi
are the second largest population division among the three largest groups in Rwanda
Rwanda
and Burundi; the other two being the Hutu (largest) and the Twa (smallest)
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Ugandan Bush War
The Ugandan Bush War, also known as the Luwero War, the Ugandan civil war or the Resistance War, was a civil war fought in Uganda
Uganda
between the Uganda
Uganda
National Liberation Army (UNLA) and the National Resistance Army (NRA) from 1981 to 1986. The unpopular President Milton Obote
Milton Obote
was overthrown in a coup d'état in 1971 by General Idi Amin, who established a military dictatorship. Amin was overthrown in 1979 following the Uganda- Tanzania
Tanzania
War. Subsequent elections saw Obote return to power in an UNLA-ruled government. Several opposition groups claimed the elections were rigged, and united as the NRA under the leadership of Yoweri Museveni
Yoweri Museveni
to start an armed uprising against Obote's government on 6 February 1981
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Gene Flow
In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another. If the rate of gene flow is high enough, then two populations are considered to have equivalent genetic diversity and therefore effectively a single population. It has been shown that it takes only "One migrant per generation" to prevent population diverging due to drift.[1] Gene
Gene
flow is an important mechanism for transferring genetic diversity among populations. Migrants into or out of a population may result in a change in allele frequencies (the proportion of members carrying a particular variant of a gene), changing the distribution of genetic diversity within the populations. Immigration may also result in the addition of new genetic variants to the established gene pool of a particular species or population. High rates of gene flow can reduce the genetic differentiation between the two groups, increasing homogeneity
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Uganda
Coordinates: 1°N 32°E / 1°N 32°E / 1; 32 Republic
Republic
of Uganda[1] Jamhuri ya Uganda  (Swahili)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "For God and My Country" "kwa mungu na nchi yangu"Anthem: "Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty"Location of  Uganda  (dark green) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)Capital and largest city KampalaOfficial languages English Swahili[2]
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North Africa
North Africa
Africa
is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic
Atlantic
shores of Morocco
Morocco
in the west, to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs
Arabs
as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as Libya
Libya
and Egypt
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Berlin
Berlin
Berlin
(/bɜːrˈlɪn/, German: [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn] ( listen)) is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states. With a steadily growing population of approximately 3.7 million,[4] Berlin
Berlin
is the second most populous city proper in the European Union
European Union
behind London
London
and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union.[5] Located in northeastern Germany
Germany
on the banks of the rivers Spree
Spree
and Havel, it is the centre of the Berlin- Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Metropolitan Region, which has roughly 6 million residents from more than 180 nations.[6][7][8][9] Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin
Berlin
is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate
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Y Chromosome
The Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals. The other is the X chromosome. Y is the sex-determining chromosome in many species, since it is the presence or absence of Y that determines the male or female sex of offspring produced in sexual reproduction. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains the gene SRY, which triggers testis development. The DNA
DNA
in the human Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is composed of about 59 million base pairs.[5] The Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is passed only from father to son
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Haplogroup E1b1 (Y-DNA)
E-P2, also known as E1b1, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. This paternal clade had an ancient presence in the Middle East, and is now primarily distributed in Africa, with lower frequencies in the Middle East and Europe.Contents1 Origin 2 Distribution 3 Phylogenetics3.1 Phylogenetic history3.1.1 Research publications3.2 Phylogenetic trees4 See also4.1 Genetics 4.2 Y-DNA E subclades 4.3 Y-DNA backbone tree5 References 6 Additional sources 7 External linksOrigin[edit] E-P2 is believed to have originated in the Ethiopian Highlands
Ethiopian Highlands
since this is the place with a high diversity of ancestral subclades of the haplogroup. E-P2 is the ancestral lineage of the majority of E subclades existing today throughout Africa, the Middle East
Middle East
and Europe. It has diverged into two subclades: E-V38 and E-M215 approximately 24-27,000 years ago.[3] Trombetta et al
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Nilo-Saharan Languages
The Nilo- Saharan languages
Saharan languages
are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile
Nile
rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile
Nile
meet
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Afro-Asiatic Languages
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic)[3] or Semito-Hamitic,[4] is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.[5] It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and parts of the Sahel. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 495 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo).[6] The phylum has six branches: Berber, Chadic, Cushitic, Egyptian, Omotic
Omotic
and Semitic. By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic. A language within the Semitic branch, it includes Modern Standard Arabic as well as spoken colloquial varieties
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Colony
In politics and history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.[vague] For colonies in antiquity, city-states would often found their own colonies. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception. The metropolitan state is the state that rules the colony. In Ancient Greece, the city that founded a colony was known as the metropolis. "Mother country" is a reference to the metropolitan state from the point of view of citizens who live in its colony
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Catholicism
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Religious Conversion
Religious conversion
Religious conversion
is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others. Thus "religious conversion" would describe the abandoning of adherence to one denomination and affiliating with another
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Belgium
Coordinates: 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000Kingdom of BelgiumKoninkrijk België  (Dutch) Royaume de Belgique  (French) Königreich Belgien  (German)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch) "L'union fait la force" (French) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German) "Unity makes Strength"Anthem: "La Brabançonne" "The Brabantian"Location of  Belgium  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Brussels 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350Official languages Dutch French GermanEthnic groups see DemographicsReligion (2015[1])60.7% Christianity 32.0% No religion 5.2% Islam 2.1% Other religionsDemonym BelgianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitu
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