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Turkmens
The Turkmens
Turkmens
(Turkmen: Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA: [tyɾkmenˈleɾ]) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan. Smaller communities are also found in Iran, Afghanistan, North Caucasus
Caucasus
(Stavropol Krai), and northern Pakistan. They speak the Turkmen language, which is classified as a part of the Eastern Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages
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Dahae
The Dahae, also known as the Daae, Dahas or Dahaeans (Latin: Dahae; Ancient Greek: Δάοι, Δάαι, Δαι, Δάσαι Dáoi, Dáai, Dai, Dasai; Sanskrit: Dasa; Chinese Dayi 大益)[1][2] were a people of ancient Central Asia. A confederation of three tribes – the Parni, Xanthii and Pissuri – the Dahae lived in an area now comprising much of modern Turkmenistan. The area has consequently been known as Dahestan, Dahistan and Dihistan. Relatively little is known about their way of life. For example, according to the Iranologist A. D. H. Bivar, the capital of "the ancient Dahae (if indeed they possessed one) is quite unknown."[3] The Dahae dissolved, apparently, some time before the beginning of the 1st millennium
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Transoxiana
Transoxiana
Transoxiana
(also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as Mā warāʼ an-Nahr (Arabic: ما وراء النهر‎ Arabic pronunciation: [ˈmaː waˈraːʔ anˈnahr] – 'what [is] beyond the [Oxus] river') and in Persian as Farārūd (Persian: فرارود‬‎, Persian pronunciation: [fæɾɒːɾuːd]—'beyond the [Amudarya] river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan
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Gagauz Language
 Moldova GagauziaRecognised minority language in UkraineLanguage codesISO 639-3 gagGlottolog gaga1249[2]Linguasphere part of 44-AAB-aThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili, Gagauzça) is a Turkic language spoken by the Gagauz people
Gagauz people
of Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey, and it is the official language of the Autonomous Region of Gagauzia in Moldova. Gagauz belongs to the Oghuz branch of Turkic languages, alongside Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Crimean Tatar (considered Kipchak in some cases), and Turkish. Gagauz has two dialects, Bulgar Gagauzi and Maritime Gagauzi
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Khorasani Turkic Language
Khorasani Turkic (Khorasani Turkic: خراسان تركچىسى, Pronunciation: [xorɑsɑn tyrktʃesi]; Persian: Zebān-e Torkī-ye Xorāsānī زبان ترکی خراسانی‎) is an Oghuz Turkic language spoken in northern North Khorasan Province
North Khorasan Province
and Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran
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Salar Language
 ChinaXunhua Salar Autonomous County[5] Jishishan Bonan, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous CountyLanguage codesISO 639-3 slrGlottolog sala1264[6]This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.Salar is a Turkic language
Turkic language
spoken by the Salar people, who mainly live in the provinces of Qinghai
Qinghai
and Gansu
Gansu
in China; some also live in Ili, Xinjiang. It is an eastern outlier of the Oghuz branch of Turkic, the other Oghuz languages
Oghuz languages
(Turkish, Azerbaijani, Turkmen) being spoken mostly in West-Central Asia
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Mahmud Kashgari
Kashgari (Arabic: كاشغري‎) is an Arabic family name, which may refer to: Hamza Kashgari
Hamza Kashgari
(born 1989), Saudi columnist Mahmud al-Kashgari, eleventh century Turkic scholarThis page lists people with the surname Kashgari
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Makdisi
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (Arabic: محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي‎), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi , (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab
Arab
geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsim fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), and one of the earliest known historical figures to self-identify as a Palestinian during his travels.[1][2]Contents1 Biography 2 References 3 Resources 4 Further reading 5 See alsoBiography[edit]The regions of Islam in the tenth century, based on Al-Maqdisi's workAl-Maqdisi, "the Jerusalemite" was born in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 946 AD. He had the advantage of an excellent education and after having made the Pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
in his twentieth year, determined to devote himself to the study of geography
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Ibn Kathir
Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) c. 1300 – 1373) was a highly influential historian and Sunni
Sunni
scholar of the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school during the Mamluk era in Syria. An expert on tafsir (Quranic exegesis) and faqīh (jurisprudence), he wrote several books, including a fourteen-volume universal history.[8][9] Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani said about him, “ Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
worked on the subject of the hadith in the texts (متون) and chains of narrators (رجال)
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Hamza
Hamza
Hamza
(Arabic: همزة‎, hamzah) (ء) is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop [ʔ]. Hamza
Hamza
is not one of the 28 "full" letters and owes its existence to historical inconsistencies in the standard writing system. It is derived from the Arabic
Arabic
letter ‘ayn. In the Phoenician and Aramaic alphabets, from which the Arabic alphabet is descended, the glottal stop was expressed by aleph (), continued by alif (  ) in the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet. However, alif was used to express both a glottal stop and a long vowel /aː/. To indicate that a glottal stop, and not a mere vowel, was intended, hamza was added diacritically to alif. In modern orthography, under certain circumstances, hamza may also appear on the line, as if it were a full letter, independent of an alif
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Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uygur Autonomous Region[6] (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى‎; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; pinyin: Xīnjiāng Wéiwú’ěr Zìzhìqū) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China
China
in the northwest of the country. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and the eighth largest country subdivision in the world, spanning over 1.6 million km2 (640,000 square miles).[1] Xinjiang
Xinjiang
contains the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, which is administered by China. Xinjiang
Xinjiang
borders the countries of Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
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Oghuz Languages
The Oghuz languages
Oghuz languages
are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family, spoken by approximately 110 million people, largest of which are Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen, which combined account for more than 95% of speakers.Contents1 Terminology 2 Language classification 3 Features3.1 Shared features 3.2 Unique features4 See also 5 ReferencesTerminology[edit] The term "Oghuz" is applied to the southwestern branch of the Common Turkic languages, in reference to the
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Altay Mountains
Coordinates: 49°N 89°E / 49°N 89°E / 49; 89Altai MountainsMap of the Altai mountain rangeChinese nameSimplified Chinese 阿尔泰山脉Traditional Chinese 阿爾泰山脈TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu Pinyin Ā'ěrtài ShānmàiMongolian nameMongolian Алтайн нуруу/Altain nurûRussian nameRussian АлтайRomanization AltayKazakh nameKazakh Алтай таулары/Altai’ tay’lary/التاي تاۋلارىUyghur nameUyghur Altay Taghliri/ئالتاي تاغلىرىThe Altai Mountains
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Siberian
Coordinates: 60°0′N 105°0′E / 60.000°N 105.000°E / 60.000; 105.000SiberiaRussian: Сибирь (Sibir)Geographical region       Siberian Federal District        Geographic Russian Siberia        North AsiaCountry  Russia,  KazakhstanRegion North AsiaBorders on West: Ural Mountains North: Arctic
Arctic
Ocean East: Pacific
Pacific
Ocean South: Kazakhstan, Mongolia, ChinaParts West Siberian Plain Central Siberian Plateau others...Highest point Klyuchevskaya Sopka - elevation 4,649 m (15,253 ft)Area 13,100,000 km2 (5,057,938 sq mi)Population 36,000,000 (2017)Density 2.7/km2 (7/sq mi) Siberia
Siberia
(/saɪˈbɪəriə/; Russian: Сиби́рь, tr
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Volga
The Volga (Russian: Во́лга, IPA: [ˈvoɫɡə] ( listen)) is the longest river in Europe. It is also Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and watershed. The river flows through central Russia
Russia
and into the Caspian Sea, and is widely regarded as the national river of Russia. Eleven of the twenty largest cities of Russia, including the capital, Moscow, are located in the Volga's watershed. Some of the largest reservoirs in the world can be found along the Volga
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Balkans
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe
Europe
with various and disputed definitions.[1][2] The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains
Balkan Mountains
that stretch from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea. The Balkan Peninsula
Peninsula
is bordered by the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
on the northwest, the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
on the southwest, the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
in the south and southeast, and the Black Sea
Black Sea
on the east and northeast. The northern border of the peninsula is variously defined
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