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Turiya
In Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, turiya (Sanskrit: तुरीय, meaning "the fourth") or caturiya, chaturtha, is pure consciousness. Scientists described it as a hypo-metabolic state of "restful alertness." [1] Turiya is the background that underlies and transcends the three common states of consciousness. The states of consciousness are: waking consciousness, dreaming, and dreamless sleep.[web 1][web 2]Contents1 Mandukya Upanishad 2 Understanding of Turiya2.1 Advaita Vedanta2.1.1 Gaudapada 2.1.2 Adi Shankara2.2 Kashmir Shaivism3 See also 4 Notes 5 References5.1 Published references 5.2 Web-references6 Sources 7 External linksMandukya Upanishad[edit] Main article: Mandukya Upanishad Turiya is discussed in Verse 7 of the Mandukya Upanishad; however, the idea is found in the oldest Upanishads
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Chaturanga
Chaturanga
Chaturanga
(Sanskrit: चतुरङ्ग; caturaṅga จตุรงฺค), or catur for short, is an ancient Indian strategy game which is commonly theorized to be the common ancestor of the board games: chess, shogi, sittuyin, makruk, xiangqi and janggi.[citation needed] Chaturanga
Chaturanga
developed in the Gupta Empire, India around the 6th century AD. In the 7th century, it was adopted as shatranj in Sassanid Persia, which in turn was the form of chess brought to late-medieval Europe. The exact rules of chaturanga are unknown
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Tantraloka
DivisionsSamhita Brahmana Aranyaka UpanishadsUpanishads Rig vedicAitareya KaushitakiSama vedicChandogya KenaYajur vedicBrihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara MaitriAtharva vedicMundaka Mandukya PrashnaOther scripturesBhagavad Gita AgamasRelated Hindu textsVedangasShiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa JyotishaPuranas Brahma puranasBrahma Brahmānda Brahmavaivarta Markandeya BhavishyaVaishnava puranasVishnu Bhagavata Naradiya Garuda Padma Vamana Kurma MatsyaShaiva puranasShiva Linga Skanda Vayu AgniItihasaRamayana MahabharataShastras and sutrasDharma Shastra Artha Śastra Kamasutra Brahma Sutras Samkhya Sutras Mimamsa Sutras Nyāya Sūtras Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Yoga Sutras
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Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra
Zen
Zen
in JapanDōgen Hakuin EkakuSeon in KoreaTaego Bou Jinul Daewon Seongcheol Zen
Zen
in the USAD. T
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Chaturaji
Chaturaji (meaning "four kings", and also known as choupat, IAST Caupāṭ, IPA: [tʃɔːˈpaːʈ]) is a four-player chess-like game. It was first described in detail c. 1030 by Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
in his book India.[1] Originally, this was a game of chance: the pieces to be moved were decided by rolling two dice. A diceless variant of the game was still played in India at the close of the 19th century.Contents1 History 2 Rules2.1 Piece moves 2.2 Boat triumph 2.3 Dice throws 2.4 Scoring3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksHistory[edit] The ancient Indian epic Mahabharata
Mahabharata
contains a reference to a game, which could be chaturaji:[2]Presenting myself as a Brahmana, Kanka by name, skilled in dice and fond of play, I shall become a courtier of that high-souled king
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Vaishvanara
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri NavaratriDurga Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-DussehraRaksha Bandhan Ganesh Chaturthi Vasant Panchami Rama Navami Janmashtami Onam Makar Sankranti Kumbha Mela Pongal Ugadi VaisakhiBihu Puthandu VishuRatha YatraGurus, saints, philosophersAncientAgastya Angiras Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Bharadwaja Gotama Jamadagni Jaimini Kanada Kapila Kashyapa Pāṇini Patanjali Raikva Satyakama Jabala Valmiki Vashistha Vishvamitra Vyasa YajnavalkyaMedievalNayanars Alvars Adi Shank
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Dream
A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.[1] The content and purpose of dreams are not fully understood, though they have been a topic of scientific, philosophical and religious interest throughout recorded history. Dream
Dream
interpretation is the attempt at drawing meaning from dreams and searching for an underlying message. The scientific study of dreams is called oneirology.[2] Dreams mainly occur in the rapid-eye movement (REM) stage of sleep—when brain activity is high and resembles that of being awake. REM sleep
REM sleep
is revealed by continuous movements of the eyes during sleep
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Deep Sleep
Slow-wave sleep
Slow-wave sleep
(SWS), often referred to as deep sleep, consists of Stage three (combined stages 3 and 4) of non-rapid eye movement sleep.[2] Initially, SWS consisted of both Stage 3 (N3), which has 20-50 percent delta wave activity, and Stage four (N4), which has more than 50 percent delta wave activity.[3] However, as of 2008, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
American Academy of Sleep Medicine
(AASM) has discontinued the use of Stage four as a separate stage.[4][5][6] Thus, the two stages are now combined as "Stage three"
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Ahamkara
Ahaṃkāra (अहंकार) is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term that is related to the ego and egoism - that is, the identification or attachment of one's ego. The term "ahamkara" comes from an approximately 3,000-year-old Vedic philosophy, where Ahaṃ is the Self or "I" and kāra is "any created thing" or "to do". The term originated in Vedic philosophy over 3,000 years ago, and was later incorporated into Hindu philosophy, particularly Saṃkhyā
Saṃkhyā
philosophy.[1] Ahamkara is one of the four parts of the antahkarana (inner organ) described in Hindu philosophy. The other three parts are Buddhi, Citta and Manas. In the Uttara Mimamsa
Uttara Mimamsa
or vedanta branch of Hindu philosophy, even though it is not discussed in great detail in the Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna
Krishna
says to Arjun that ahamkara must be removed - in other words, it should be subordinated to the lord
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Abhinavagupta
Vedic philosophyAgastya Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Vashistha YajnavalkyaMimamsaJaiminiVedantaAdvaitaBadarayana Gaudapada Adi ShankaraDvaitaMadhvacharyaSri VaishnavismRamanujaNeo-VedantaVivekananda AurobindoSamkhyaKapilaYogaPatanjaliNyayaGotamaNavya-NyāyaGangesha UpadhyayaVaisheshikaKanadaNāstika (heterodox)Ājīvika Charvaka Kashmir
Kashmir
ShaivismAbhinavaguptaPratyabhijna TantraTamilValluvam ValluvarOther
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Brahma Samhita
The Brahma
Brahma
Saṁhitā is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Pañcarātra text, composed of verses of prayer spoken by Brahma
Brahma
glorifying the supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa or Govinda
Govinda
at the beginning of creation. It is revered within Gauḍiya Vaiṣṇavism, whose 16th-century founder, Caitanya Mahāprabhu (1486–1534), rediscovered a part of the work, the 62 verses of Chapter 5, which had previously been lost for a few centuries, at the Adikeshav Temple in Thiruvattar, Tamil Nadu, South India.[1] Mitsunori Matsubara, in his Pañcarātra Saṁhitās and Early Vaisṇava Theology dates the text at ca 1300 CE
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Truth
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t e Time
Time
Saving Truth
Truth
from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737Truth, holding a mirror and a serpent (1896). Olin Levi Warner, Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C. Truth
Truth
is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.[1] Truth
Truth
may also often be used in modern contexts to refer to an idea of "truth to self," or authenticity. Truth
Truth
is usually held to be opposite to falsehood, which, correspondingly, can also take on a logical, factual, or ethical meaning. The concept of truth is discussed and debated in several contexts, including philosophy, art, and religion
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Rasa Lila
The Rass lila ( IAST
IAST
rāsa-līlā) (Hindi: रास लीला) or Rass dance is part of the traditional story of Krishna
Krishna
described in Hindu scriptures such as the Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
and literature such as the Gita Govinda, where he dances with Radha
Radha
and her sakhis
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Shuddhadvaita
VedantaAdvaita Vishishtadvaita Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta Bhedabheda Dvaitadvaita Achintya Bheda Abheda ShuddhadvaitaHeterodoxCharvaka Ājīvika Buddhism JainismOther schoolsVaishnava Smarta Shakta ĪśvaraShaiva: Pratyabhijña Pashupata SiddhantaTantraTeachers (Acharyas)NyayaAkṣapāda Gotama Jayanta Bhatta Raghunatha SiromaniMīmāṃsāJaimini Kumārila Bhaṭṭa Prabhākara
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Mindfulness
Mindfulness is the psychological process of bringing one's attention to experiences occurring in the present moment,[1][2][3] which can be developed through the practice of meditation and other training.[2][4][5] The term "mindfulness" is a translation of the Pali term sati,[6] which is a significant element of Buddhist traditions.[7][8] In Buddhist teachings, mindfulness is utilized to develop self-knowledge and wisdom that gradually lead to what is described as enlightenment or the complete freedom from suffering.[7] The recent[when?] popularity of mindfulness in the modern context is generally considered to have been initiated by Jon Kabat-Zinn.[9][10] Studies have shown that rumination and worry contribute to mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety,[11][3] and that mindfulness-based interventions are
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Dhyana In Buddhism
In Buddhism, Dhyāna (Sanskrit) or Jhāna
Jhāna
(Pali) is a series of cultivated states of mind, which lead to a "state of perfect equanimity and awareness (upekkhii-sati-piirisuddhl)."[1] It is commonly translated as meditation, and is also used in Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism
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